Ritual Sacrifice in Ancient Israel

What are the origins of animal sacrifice in the Bible?

Biblical Archaeology Society Staff   •  10/25/2011

Ritual Sacrifice in Ancient IsraelThe ritual sacrifice of a ram is depicted in this third-millennium B.C.E. Mesopotamian mosaic.

What are the origins of animal sacrifice? We know that many ancient cultures practiced ritual sacrifice, and ancient sacrifice in Israel was a part of religious worship at the Jerusalem Temple. While ritual sacrifice is now discouraged in many modern religions–with the ritual sacrifice now often represented by symbolic acts and gestures—ancient sacrifice in Israel and many other ancient cultures was a common part of religious worship.

In his article “The Origin of Israelite Sacrifice,” William W. Hallo attempts to answer the question: “What are the origins of animal sacrifice?” For while ancient sacrifice in Israel was common practice, it wasn’t original to the Hebrews. Indeed, argues Hallo, the most convincing evidence of the practice of ritual sacrifice comes from the much older Mesopotamian civilization.

In his article, Hallo discusses not only the evidence for ritual sacrifice in ancient Mesopotamia, but also some of the possible motivations for the development of such a practice. He suggests that ritual sacrifice to the gods in Mesopotamia developed as a means of justifying meat consumption by human beings–a privilege generally reserved for the elite of society–and that by the beginning of the third millennium B.C.E. ritual sacrifice was understood as a means of feeding the Mesopotamian gods.

Ancient sacrifice in Israel was also a means of sanctifying meat consumption, but Hallo argues that it also took on several additional layers of meaning and significance. Ancient sacrifice in Israel was seen as a method for sanctifying certain human activities and as a way of imparting greater significance to certain rituals. Animal sacrifice was also a means of redress and was seen as a way of atoning for human transgressions.

To learn more about ancient animal sacrifice, read William W. Hallo’s “The Origin of Israelite Sacrifice,” Biblical Archaeology Review, November/December 2011.

Peter’s Comments:

I thought I would post this article as it was most interesting and was something in which I have recently touched upon with my writing on paganism and the worship of nature. Although this article deals with the subject of ritual sacrifice, this may help to give another aspect of the world of how people interacted with the gods in those times, and how the Israelites conducted sacrifice.

I would recommend everyone to check out this website: http://alturl.com/qb2i6 which is a link I have created to the main website of, The Biblical Archaeology Society. They offer subscriptions for an excellent magazine I used to buy which is filled with a wealth of knowledge. As well, if you are interested in archaeological digs and being a part of one as a volunteer, they offer a host of sites that are currently under construction that you can join, from Israel, Italy, Spain, and Jordan.

By, Peter J. Fast

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The Four Stooges: The Year of the Four Emperors of Rome

From Nero to Vespasian

68 C.E. – 69 C.E.

The purpose of this article is not to be exhaustive in any way, but to embark on one of the wildest years throughout the ages of Roman history. It was a year that dragged the empire into civil war, assassination and betrayal which nearly destroyed the massive, widespread empire. Although typically historians do not count Emperor Nero as part of the four, since he was already emperor at the time, we shall begin this journey by starting with the tyrant, both loved and hated by the people of Rome.

Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (54 C.E. – 68 C.E.)

Nero was known in the annals of history as a lot of things. The fifth emperor of the Roman Empire, tyrant, obsessed musician and poet, the man who crushed the Boudicca Revolt in Britain, started the fire of Rome (64C.E.) and blamed it on the Christians, and a man who did not possess the most favorable view of his mother as he had her executed, and most likely poisoned his stepbrother, Britannicus. Nero was a man driven by lust, grandeur, madness, paranoia, and in the end was betrayed by the very men dedicated to protect him, the Praetorian Guard of Rome, as documented by the Roman historian, Suetonius. Nero had extreme bouts of sadistic, morbid wanes, a great example being that he used captured Christians, as human torches by covering them in pitch and lighting them on fire to illuminate his gardens during feasts and parties.

Nero was of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and so was fifth in line, after Emperor Claudius, to rule the empire of Rome. He loved to travel and perform the arts, often times where he would force people to listen to his poetic rants, sometimes under pain of death if they were to fall asleep (which nearly happened to Vespasian). Nero also was a man of war. He conducted campaigns against Parthia from 55 C.E. until a peace deal was brokered in the year 63 C.E. Nero also crushed the Boudicca rebellion of Britain (60 C.E. – 61 C.E.), the Pisonian Conspiracy of 65 C.E., and was ruler during the majority of the First Jewish Revolt of 66 C.E. – 73 C.E. In the Jewish Revolt, we see Nero’s sense of paranoia come to fruit, (as if executing his mother, and poisoning his stepbrother was not enough evidence). At the failed attempt of Syrian Governor Cestius Gallus to crush the Jewish revolt and take Jerusalem, Nero elected a nobody in the political realm to lead the newly raised Judean Army, and that was Titus Flavius Vespasianus (known as Vespasian). Vespasian, a veteran and master in the art of warfare, lacked incredibly, at the time of his elected command in 67 C.E., in the political arena. Thus, for Nero, he saw Vespasian as a harmless puppet to conduct the affair in the east and crush the Jewish uprising. However, the vice grips would suddenly close on poor Nero’s life as betrayal and treason would occur in his own ranks.

In March of 68 C.E., Gaius Julius Vindex, who was the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, rebelled against the taxation and policies that Nero had set up. Needless to say Nero was not pleased. Being the type of man who may jump at the sound of a door closing, Nero sought out to crush the rebellion. Thus, Nero made his first attempt to crush the rebellion in his own camp, and he dispatched Lucius Verginius Rufus, who was the governor of Germania Superior. Vindex tried to rally his own forces and build them up to face off against Nero’s general, Rufus, however, Vindex was defeated at the Battle of Vesontio in May of 68 C.E. and seeing defeat, Vindex committed suicide. Following in the wake of this victory, Rufus’ own troops saw him as a potential emperor and decided to declare him as Imperator. Rufus declined but the die had been cast as the thought of Nero’s demise had no doubt been planted into the minds of other powerful men in the empire. With the discontent of the legions in Germany, and the rumblings in Spain, one such man quickly rose to the seat of treason which would not bode well for Nero, and that was the Governor of Spain, Servius Sulpicius Galba. Although Nero had Galba declared a public enemy, his support was unstoppable as he was proclaimed by his own troops as representative of the Senate and the people of Rome, SPQR. Once the prefect of the Praetorian Guard, Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus had abandoned Nero and declared allegiance to Galba, it was now clear that Nero was in grave danger, so the young emperor fled Rome, perhaps intending to rally legions to his side to face Galba in battle.

But, unfortunately Nero did not get far. Nero had sent a general to northern Italy hoping to raise an army and watch Galba’s coalition collapse, but this was not to be. Thus, paranoid that he had lost control, Nero made plans to flee to Egypt. The Praetorian Guard used this as an excuse to desert him, since in their minds, he had deserted Rome. So, like he had declared Galba a public enemy, the Praetorian Guard declared Nero a public enemy. In a coup d’etat they sent soldiers to arrest Nero. However, they would not get the satisfaction. As the Praetorian located and approached the deposed emperor on the outskirts of Rome, Nero took his own life following an argument with his servant to kill him. This would all be done in a grisly manner as Nero would end up ramming his own knife through his neck, thus bringing his tyrannical reign to a swift end.

Servius Sulpicius Galba Augustus (8th of June 68 C.E. – 15th of January 69 C.E.)


After throwing many drunken parties and minting his face upon coins decorated with quotes such as, “Liberty of the Roman People”, Galba suddenly became the sixth emperor of Rome. However, like the following list of people to come after him, his rule was not long at all. His mistake started at the beginning of his reign, for he did not react quick enough to flex his Roman muscle around the empire, as it was important him, once stealing the empire through anarchy and treason, to prove to everyone else that he still had it. However, what came next was undoubtedly a bad move. The first thing Galba did was on January 10th 69 C.E., he presented to the Senate a man named, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinanus. Lucius had no political achievements, an obscure family, and had just spent a couple of years in exile. Regardless, Galba adopted Lucius as heir to the throne.  Having done this, Galba naturally made political enemies out of the people who had just thrust him into power. So, Galba’s right hand man, Otho, who had been by Galba’s side since Spain, acted quickly. Out of shock and jealousy of not being made the heir, Otho rallied the disgruntled Praetorian Guard, whom Galba had failed to pay, and made a mad dash for the throne of the empire. Otho bribed all the praetorian commanders to help him take down Galba. Otho would deliver!

On January 15th 69 C.E. Otho went with Galba to sacrifice at the Temple of Apollo, only to slip away from the imperial entourage and be taken by 23 soldiers to the Praetorian Camp where he was welcomed and greeted warmly. Following this, Otho rallied the guard and killed Galba as he went through the Forum. Suetonius describes this well as they slaughtered Galba and Piso and any associates he had that were loyal to him, but miraculously there was no great slaughter. So was the end of Galba, lets continue. (Score for the Emperors 0/1)

Marcus Salvius Otho Caesar Augustus (15th of January 69 C.E. – 16th of April 69 C.E.)

Right from the beginning of his reign, Otho was a smooth-talking, double tongued man who sought, in an underhand way, to gain popularity and explain his succession to the throne as Romes seventh emperor. Obviously everyone knew he had deposed Galba from his seat of power by having the man killed, but Otho made it his mandate to try to relate with the people, appealing to a strange logic by stating that he had murdered Galba in order to avenge Nero. A little odd since Otho had been Galba’s right-hand man from the beginning. However, in Rome a man’s career was of the utmost importance, and true power came at the helm of as many legions as one could muster. So looking closer, before his rise to power, Otho had been a man confined by Nero to Lusitania as governor from 58 C.E., thus he had no real military reputation, had never been a consul, and had no great following among other provincial commanders and armies.

Otho came from Germania of all places, where the illustrious Aulus Germanicus Vitellius Augustus (a generation of Otho’s senior and consul of more than 20 years previously) fixed his eye on Otho’s throne, and preferred himself, instead of Otho, to sit on it. Vitellius was a man of war and the commander of the legions stationed on the Rhine and allowed his troops, rather in a charmed way, to convince him that he should be emperor. Like any legion, they wanted to profit from Vitellius smashing Otho in battle and removing him from the throne. Otho was young, he was only 36 which was considered by Romans to be an age that consisted of a natural lack of experience in war and politics, especially aligned next to a war-dog like Vitellius. It was simple, Vitellius and his troops refused to declare loyalty to Otho and then crossed the Alps with incredible speed in order to march on Rome. This was done to stop Otho from being reinforced by troops from other provinces, most particularly in the Balkans. So, without haste Otho was smashed at the Battle of Cremona in the Po Valley on April 14th 69 C.E. and committed suicide two days later. (Score of the Emperors 0/2)

Aulus Germanicus Vitellius Augustus (16th of April 69 C.E. – 22nd of December 69 C.E.)

After the war-dog, Vitellius had refused to declare loyalty to Otho, and met him near Cremona, he summarily trounced his enemy in a single day, and threw a party two days later as Romes eighth emperor. Once the road had been opened and Rome stood before Vitellius, naturally the Senate declared loyalty to Vitellius and deemed him emperor, honouring him with the title, Augustus, which he graciously accepted.  However, this was a recipe for disaster, as the man at the time who was engaged in an attempt to crush the Jewish Revolt, was a political enemy of Vitellius and had a legions of soldiers at his disposal. His name was Vespasian. It was obvious what would happen next and on the 5th day of the Ides of July, Vespasian was given the title of, Imperator, by his troops and numerous governors, generals, and legions hailed their allegiance to the man whom Nero had believed to be of no political rivalry or threat…which was why he chose Vespasian in the first place to lead the war in Judea. Lines were drawn, names were hurled at one another, and plans were made as Vitellius observed a host of legions, loyal to Vespasian, advance on Rome. Vitellius reacted swiftly, assembling a massive army to meet his enemies, and ironically, at the second Battle of Cremona on 24th of October 69 C.E. the forces loyal to Vespasian, killed 50,000 of Vitellius’ men. But, this was not the end for Vitellius. The scared and petrified emperor, fled back to Rome and barricaded himself in the city. It was not until the 21st of December that a general named, Primus forced his way into the city, sacked it. In the sacking, Primus captured Vitellius, had a rope placed around his neck, and then proceeded to drag him, half-naked to the Forum, all along the Sacred Way. Then at the Stairs of Wailing in the Forum, Vitellius, with a sword at his throat, was murdered. (Score for the Emperors 0/3)

Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (1st of July 69 C.E. – 23rd of June 79 C.E.)

Vespasian’s tale is the easiest to tell. He had a lot of strong support, paid off the right people, pretty much kept his word, was a great liar, was known as a charmer, had a hilarious sense of humour, and had the biggest army. After the second Battle of Cremona, Vespasian renewed the war against the rebellious Jews from the comfort of Alexandria in Egypt, and sent his son Titus (who had the same name) to mop up the rest of the mess and destroy Jerusalem along with the three remaining Jewish strongholds, the most popular being Masada by the Dead Sea. Prior to Jerusalem’s fall, Vespasian departed for Rome. In Rome he eventually got word that his son was successful in destroying Jerusalem in the summer of 70 C.E., with the Fretensis 10 Legion eventually conquering Masada by 73 C.E. in a hollow victory. Vespasian had proven to the empire that he could deliver, and for many Romans, he had restored the glory of Rome which had been devastated by the last 12 months. Vespasian, therefore, was able to lived out his days in pomp and splendour with his two sons to follow in the rule of succession. The oldest son, Titus the conqueror of Jerusalem and womanizer, ruled until 81 C.E. and then died mysteriously, most historians believing that his younger brother, Domitian, poisoned him. Once Titus had died, Domitian, the man who really did not like Christians, seized the throne…but that is another story. (Score for the Emperors 1/4)

By, Peter J Fast

Part Three:”Let us worship the creation instead of the Creator!”: The clash between the pagans and the radical idea of monotheism

Part Three: Ancient Israel: The Radical Monotheists 2400 – 516 B.C.E. Date is based on the Biblical account from, “The Age of the Patriarchs” to Abram’s calling from God to the rebuilding of the second temple after its destruction by the Babylonians in 586 B.C.E and seventy years of exile.

A Tale of a People called to be Different:In the Bible we see a man called, Abram, called by God to journey to a land that will be given to his descendents (Gen. 12:3-5). God promises Abram that he will be the father of many nations and through him, God will build up a people which He will have an everlasting covenant with (Gen. 15). From that moment on Abram’s name is changed to Abraham which means, “Father of many nations”. God demonstrates that all the nations around Abraham seek and worship false gods, and that He alone is the one true God. The Bible does not provide us with what Abram’s life was like prior to this incredible encounter, but the Midrash (literally means: between the lines- it is a collection of stories and narratives from Jewish Oral History), paints us a picture of when Abram was young growing up in the land of Ur.

The story tells us that Abram’s father was an idol maker and one day, Abram decided to test the validity of these “false gods” and so he smashed them all and then put a hammer in the hands of a large idol. When his father came home, Abram is said to have explained that there was a ferocious battle and the large god smashed all the other gods with the hammer. To this, Abram’s father exclaimed that this was simply ridiculous and impossible, to which Abram scoffed at the senselessness then in manufacturing such images and worshiping them. It was after this, he left Ur and it was then that the true God, called to him.

Whether true or not, this story would most definitely make sense aligned with the incredible test of faith and endurance we see Abraham go through. He and his wife are of old age, and are visited by an Angel of the Lord who tells them she will conceive of a son whom will be the promised son of Abraham with which this covenant between him and God will pass through. Abraham’s wife, Sarai, scoffs at the angel and her name is changed to Sarah which takes its meaning from, “one who laughs”. Later, when nothing seems to happen, Sarah convinces Abraham to take the Egyptian maid-servant, Hagar (Genesis 16) into his bedchamber and later a son is born and named, Ishmael.

This would have been acceptable in the culture which Abraham lived in, as sometimes a surrogate mother was available in times where a wife was barren. Once the child would be born, it would be considered that of the flesh and blood of the father and barren mother, so that it would take on their name to see their family line continue. In the case of Ishmael though, God was not pleased and he was not intended to be the promised son that we see God declare to Abraham in Genesis 12,15. Shortly after this, we see Sarah conceive and give birth to Isaac, who is to take the inheritance of his father, and through him to bear the covenant of God as His chosen people destined for a Promised Land which later is the land of Canaan as described in: Gen. 26:3-12, 28:4, 28:13, 28:15, 35:12, 48:4, 48:21; Ex. 3:8, 13:11, 23:31, 32:13, 33:1; Lev. 20:24, 23:10, 25:2, 25:38, 26:42; Num. 14:8, 15:2, 26:53, 26:55, 32:22, 33:53, 34:2, 34:12, 34:29, 35:34; Deut. 1:7-8, 1:21, 1:35-36, 3:18-20, 4:1, 4:21, 4:38, 4:40, 6:3, 6:10, 6:18, 6:23, 7:1, 7:13, 8:1, 8:7-15, 11:31, 12:1, 12:10, 25:19, 26:9, 26:15, 27:3, 28:11, 30:5, 31:7!!!!! (I have just listed passages from the Torah, which are the first five books of the Bible, although many more exist about Israel’s place in the land such as Psalm 105:8-11; Isaiah 56:5, 61:1-7; Jeremiah 31:35-36, Ezekiel 36:24, 37:21-28, and many more!)

From the father of Isaac, whose name was Jacob and later changed to Israel, we see a God who interacts with man desiring a relationship with them and to glorify His name through the entire world. Through this relationship, so different from all the other nations around, Israel was given the Law (Torah), covenant, responsibility to bear a witness of God, blessings and warnings if they should or should not choose to obey God. As we see in Genesis 15, God “Cut a Covenant” with Himself in the presence of Abraham who was seeing this in a vision.

Cutting a Covenant was an ancient custom seen through Mesopotamia where two parties would come together over a matter (real estate, purchase, goods, etc) and cut animals in half scattering pieces on either side of them. Then, the two people would walk through the center in front of witnesses, therefore declaring that if either one broke the promise that they would become like the dead carcasses. In Abraham’s case, he would have been baffled when God gave him this instruction. He would have known right away what was about to happen, but puzzled because the performance of Cutting a Covenant meant the two people were equal, and how could man be equal to God? However, we see something incredible, God puts Abraham to sleep and in a vision, Abraham see’s God as a fiery pot pass between the pieces by Himself, thus God makes the pact with Himself because man would never be able to uphold any kind of deal or covenant with God. God makes the covenant binding, and Abraham must have blown a sigh of relief because he would know he could never have upheld his end of the covenant.

Along with such a covenant, we see God outlining clear blessings and curses if Israel would not adhere to being a righteous people. If Israel was to follow God, trust in Him, and honor Him totally, there would be physical blessings (rain, crops, birthrate, wealth, national influence, etc). Yet, if Israel would turn away from God and chase after abominations such as false gods, taking foreign wives, and making covenants with pagan nations, God would judge His people. We see these warnings very clear in passages such as Exodus 23:33 and 34:15. In Leviticus 25:38 it states, “I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, to give you the land of Canaan and to be your God.” This land of Canaan, which would become the Kingdom of Israel/United Monarchy (1020-931 B.C.E.) and even though two millenia have passed, it is still the Land of Israel, God’s nation and God’s inheritance for His people. This amazing truth reemerged upon the world scene again on May 14th, 1948 when the State of Israel was reborn. It shows God’s stamp and that He is the God of history and the future, nothing catches Him off guard.

The High Places: (Mentioned 74 times in the Bible): In the Biblical book of 1 Kings 3:3 we see Solomon, who is the King of Israel, (and King David’s son) begin to offer incense and tribute to the gods of his foreign wives. All of this is done on, “the high places” and we see him build such places through “state sponsored” actions. In the Book of Hosea 10:8 the prophet (same name as the book) rebukes the Kingdom of Israel and proclaims that these high places are blasphemous and that thorns and thistles should grow on their altars. To add to this, Hosea shouts that because of such places mountains and hills should collapse and crumble upon them.

Sadly, despite the law, proclamations, warnings, judges, prophets, and righteous kings, this is a common theme we see interwoven through the Book of Leviticus to the end of the Hebrew Bible/TaNaK. The main problem exists in two realms. One, Israel is surrounded by pagan nations and so this, naturally would be an enormous pressure upon them to be like the other peoples, especially with the threat of intermarriage. Second, whenever Israel took her eyes off of God, they strayed away and did their own thing, which at that time was to adopt paganism and conform to those patterns. Thus, we see many times in the history of ancient Israel, the sinful Israelite’s bringing in foreign wives and idols, constructing temples and altars to false gods, and ascending up to the “high places” which were the seats of idolatry in the land that the true God had given them as an inheritance.

The perfect example is the Golden Calf (Ex. 32) which was set up at the base of Mount Sinai (or Mount Horeb) in the wilderness. Moses had ascended up the mountain to be with God, and had been away for weeks. The people, thinking he was dead, pressured Aaron into constructing a calf of gold (ironically like the idols in Egypt) and set this up next to an altar to the Lord. This early form of syncretism was evident as the people proclaimed to the gods of gold that they would serve and worship them. This account of apostasy ends with Moses destroying the tablets of the Law, rebuking the people, and God’s wrath swallowing up thousands. This even after God had led them from Egypt in glory, descended upon the mountain in smoke and fire while they were encamped around it (Ex. 19), and had revealed Himself in countless ways, showing to be true to His word.

Kingdom of Israel: (931-722 B.C.E.)

The prophet Amos states in Amos 7:9, “The high places (venishmol behmot- Hebrew for breathing idolatry) of Isaac shall be desolate, and the sanctuaries (temples) of Israel laid to waste. I will rise with the sword against the house of Jeroboam.” King Jeroboam of the Kingdom of Israel, in an attempt to steer his people away from pilgrimage to Jerusalem to worship, is seen in the Bible as erecting two pagan temples, one in Bethal and the other in Dan. Scripture says he set up a golden calf in each, and declared them to be the gods of Israel. The prophet of Amos clearly speaks harsh judgment upon the Kingdom of Israel which would eventually be destroyed and carried off into exile by the Assyrians in 722 B.C.E. because of their wickedness. Through the warlike Assyrians, their practice of assimilation would later bring about the half-breed people called, Samaritans (discussed in the Christian Scriptures) as these people were considered half Jewish. The Assyrians took into captivity the brightest and best of the population, leaving behind the poor, and then would send its own colonialists back into the conquered land to farm it and settle. For Assyria’s reign in the ancient world, this proved to be an effective tool and method of gaining and controlling power for years.

Idolatry was clearly despicable in the sight of the one true God, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob who ultimately would show His superiority over any fictitious belief in gods by allowing to be built His Holy Temple upon the “high place” of Mount Moriah and no where else. This was not to be any such high place, but one designated by God clearly and with specific detail. Except in this case, faithful Jews who worshiped at the Temple in Jerusalem, did not worship and sacrifice to a false gods.

Kingdom of Judah: (931-586 B.C.E.)

Finally, the tale of the high places ends for the southern Kingdom of Judah in the year 586 B.C.E. when the armies of Babylon under the kingship of Nebuchadnezzar, plundered the land, sacked Jerusalem, and destroyed the temple built by Solomon. This disaster would see a large segment of the Kingdom of Judah taken into exile for a period of 70 years before returning under Nehemiah, Zerubbabal, and Zachariah as the second temple would be built. The cause for exile laid in the hands of the king of Judah called Manasseh, who did horrible things which included offering up children as sacrifice into the fires of the Hinnom Valley to the god Molek, and later murdering the prophet Isaiah by sawing him in two. Like, king Jeroboam of Israel before him, Manasseh’s evil was the last straw for Judah as God would pour out his wrath upon them through the conquest of Babylonia.

In closing:

The ancient history of Israel is fascinating as it shows a unique people chosen by God, not because they were mightier, stronger, richer, or more numerous then any of the other nations around them, but for one simple reason, to have His name glorified in the earth. Despite their failings, the Jews have been true to preserving the Word of God, and through them giving birth to Christianity and the Jewish Messiah Yeshua (Jesus). Prophecy, written so long ago about the Jews returning to the land, and Zion being rebuilt, and prospering once more has come true as millions of Jews now reside in the reborn State of Israel. They have preserved their faith through their forefathers Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and have survived countless attempts at annihilation by enemies throughout time. Through nearly four thousand years of trials, hardships, and blessings, God has been faithful to His word and preserved them. No other nation could have ever taken what the Jews have experienced and still come out on top. They stand apart from every other nation, as a people handpicked by the Almighty to show the world that God moves powerfully through men and that He has a plan to restore His name in a fallen, corrupt, and wicked world.

Israel exists today, God’s covenant with His people remains, and He has kept His word, because of that we have assurance that the Bible is truth and we can trust in Him as a faithful, just God who will see evil crushed and truth prevail.

By, Peter J. Fast