*Looking to order a copy, click on the picture above!
**Available in hardcover, softcover & Ebook
To one who knows the historical happenings concerning the war between the dreaded Seleucid King Antiochus Epiphanes IV and Judah Maccabee (story of Hanukkah), they must be always struck with a sense of awe and monumental surprise, for when we take a step back and examine the situation on the eve of the rebellion, the odds were clearly stacked in the Seleucids favour. This earth shattering story, intimately recorded in 1st and 2nd Maccabees of the Apocrypha and celebrated at the winter festival of Hanukkah, has all the colour and depth of any literary masterpiece: friendship, loyalty, faith, love, war, torture, betrayal, triumph, honour, courage, wisdom, virility, and standing against all odds. The small, seemingly insignificant Jewish people, surrounded by the behemoth empire of the Greek Seleucids with their vast armies and endless resources, are victorious over their brutal adversary following decades of war. This Seleucid defeat, eventually led to the weakening and collapse of the proud Seleucid Empire. For the Jews of Judea among the conquered nations which made up the Greek empire, a proper comparison would be to liken Judea to a single white dot on a chalkboard. Yet, it was the Jews who would triumph in battle and not the Seleucids. It was a rabble of Jews who became seasoned warriors, defeating massive armies three to four times their number. How could these Jews, who started out as simple masons, carpenters, priests, scribes, shepherds, butchers, vinedressers, farmers, weavers, and potters even have a chance at success? How could they seize victory over a professional, battle-hardened enemy? One may ask, how was this even possible? Well, let’s examine three clear facts which we know to be true. This examination is not meant to be exhaustive, but hopefully will shed light on how Judah Maccabee, the son of a priest, managed to lead the Jews of Judea in open revolt, staging one of the most incredible, daring, military feats in human history.
Number One: The subservient shall never rise!
The fact of the matter is simple, the idea of Jews rebelling in armed response against their Greek overlords never entered Seleucid thinking. Nobody on the Greek-Seleucid side saw it coming. Either they didn’t believe it at first, chose to out rightly ignore it, never thought it possible, or scoffed at the very idea. To say the Seleucids had a low opinion of the Jews would be a huge understatement. To Seleucid kings, nobles, and generals, the subservient never rebelled. History demonstrated that typically kings and generals led rebellions, amassing militias to their side, (i.e. Xenophon’s 10,000, Caesar and Pompey, or the Greeks versus the Persians) so why would Antiochus Epiphanes IV have treated this any differently?
Obviously communication was much slower than. The record shows that out of a result from the intense competitive lifestyle among Greek officers, information was suppressed and not properly passed on, yet still the Seleucids failed to treat the Maccabee uprising as a genuine rebellion for nearly a year since the initial outbreak, thus giving it time to strengthen and morph into a real problem. But at the grassroots of it all, the Seleucids thought they had no reason to worry. They suspected that they were dealing with nothing more than a gang of cut-throats and treasonous thieves. Even when a modern-day student of history looks back over time, the amount of conflicts started by “nobodies” and “peasants” are barely a fraction of a percentage when weighed against the wars and conflicts started by generals, kings, politicians, and warlords.
In the Seleucid opinion, the Jews were a backwater people, with no combat experience possessing strong religious roots. The Jews were divided among themselves, many adopting the Hellenism of the Greeks. Those who rejected Hellas, clung to their faith in the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, this category was where the Maccabees would arise from. So, when the rebellion was burning bright and the Maccabees were organizing their campaign to crush the Seleucids, the Greeks were making other plans to invade Parthia (a neighbouring superpower). Around the same time, Antiochus passed strict edicts, forcing all the inhabitants of his realm to adopt Greek customs and worship their gods in an effort to strengthen his western borders, due to his fear of the rising power of Rome. While all of this was going on, Antiochus, who saw himself as the next Alexander the Great, hardly paid any attention to the Jews as a result from his ego, overconfidence, and what history told him in regards to dominated, suppressed people.
Number Two: Bad tactics equal a bloody mess!
The harsh edicts in which Antiochus Epiphanes IV issued to all his subjects, were edicts that made it mandatory for all inhabitants to observe and participate in Hellenistic activities, which included pagan rituals. This was Antiochus’ attempt to unify the subjects of his kingdom, in a two-pronged effort to guard against the rise of Parthia in the east and the might of Rome in the west. Rome was becoming more of an expansionist empire, having already defeated Carthage in two wars for supremacy of the Mediterranean Sea and now held Sicily, Sardina and Corsica, parts of west Africa, and swathes of provinces expanding into Europe. So Antiochus, intimately familiar with the Roman mindset from his days as a hostage, feared that the Roman eye would gaze upon his kingdom. Thus, he took swift action to strengthen his western borders. Antiochus also had to guard against his old rival, the Ptolemaic Empire, which had been a splinter kingdom, ruling out of Egypt, since the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. Since the Jews had fallen under Seleucid rule (190’s B.C.) with the suppression of the Ptolemaic influence, they continued to remain as staunch monotheists in the God of Israel, observing Torah (Bible) and the traditions of their forefathers.
As a result of Jewish refusal to obey his new Hellas laws, Antiochus launched a campaign of persecution, targeting the Jews of Judea which made up the faithful majority who refused to compromise the commandments of Torah and their beliefs in one God. Thus, Judea became divided, with one side making up a significant percentage of Jews (known as Hellenists or Antiochians) who obeyed the king and forsook the Torah, and the other side being compiled of Jews who would rather die then break the commandments. Against overwhelming Seleucid persecution, the Maccabees, led by Judah and his brothers from the village of Modiin, launched a guerilla-style rebellion.
The commander of Jerusalem, Philip of the Phyrgians, failed to take the rebellion seriously, ostracized the Jews and branded them as nothing more than ‘murderers and thieves.’ Meanwhile, Antiochus was rallying a huge army in his capital of Antioch, to invade the lands of Parthia and expand his kingdom. As a result of his inaction, Philip allowed the Maccabees to gain intimate knowledge of the land, establish a system of bases among the friendly villages, create a network of recruiting soldiers to trai them, and settled in the hills around Gophna where they established a base. From here, nearly a year went by in which the Maccabees raided and ambushed Seleucid patrols, slaughtering them, seizing their weapons and armour. After Philip had lost substantial troops, he finally attempted to launch his own campaign into the wilderness, but was quickly destroyed, thereby realizing the threat that faced him. Thus, he had no alternative but to turn to the governor of Samaria for help, Apollonius.
In all his pomp, Apollonius marched 2,500 troops along the Samaritan Road, a road which runs north and south to Jerusalem. This was the easiest and quickest road to take but Apollonius failed to treat the Maccabee threat seriously. Marching his men through the Judean Hills, overcome by heavy armour and cumbersome weapons, they were ambushed by the Maccabees (numbering around 600 men) and massacred…including Apollonius who was decapitated. After this solid victory, Jews flocked to the Maccabee ranks and they went on to win another outstanding victory against Seleucid general, Seron. Seron made almost the identical mistake as Apollonius, except this time taking 4,000 men along a different route, only to be ambushed and slaughtered. Next came Seleucid generals Nicanor and Gorgias, who were commissioned by Seleucid Viceroy Lysias who was governing the capital of Antioch in the king’s absence on his Parthian campaign. Nicanor and Gorgias took an army of 25,000 troops, sought to establish a base camp in Emmaus and chose to divide their forces to launch a double attack against the Jews. However, through Maccabee genius, the Jews dodged Gorgias’ men, leading them on a wild goose chase, and closed in against Nicanor’s 15,000, striking the main base camp at Emmaus with force. In a desperate battle, Judah’s army of 6,000 managed to put to flight Nicanor’s host and capture the camp. Upon Gorgias’ return, he found the camp in ruins, the Maccabees waiting for round-two, and decided to retreat.
When word reached Antioch, Lysias felt he had no choice but to lead his own army. So, he assembled 45,000 men, marched them down the coast, and struck inland for Hebron with plans of reaching Jerusalem from the south. Meanwhile, the Maccabees had been shadowing his advance, and assembling their men outside of Beit Zur, they attacked the marching columns of Lysias’ army and slaughtered 4,000 of them before putting them to flight. Lysias vowed his revenge, and like a dog with its tail between its legs, he withdrew back to Antioch. The Maccabees, unopposed, marched to Jerusalem and captured the city.
The series of Seleucid defeats can only be summed up by stating the obvious: they were unprepared for a guerrilla war, arrogant in their methods, never suspecting what awaited them, unorganized in their tactics, failed to share vital information or treat the threat as credible. The Maccabees on the other hand, capitalized on the Seleucid weaknesses, used their strengths against them, and constantly changed their tactics. They managed to unite the people of Judea, drive out the enemy, and establish an independent Jewish kingdom known as the Hasmonean Kingdom, after the family line of Judah Maccabee.
Number Three: Did anyone mention anything about divine intervention?
“Then all the people fell upon their faces, worshipping and praising the God of heaven, who had given them good success. And so they kept the dedication of the altar eight days, and offered burnt offerings with gladness, and sacrificed the sacrifice of deliverance and praise.” 1st Maccabees 5
To say that the Maccabees did not believe that God had intervened on their behalf would simply be a untrue. The Maccabees were pious men, with scribes, priests, and teachers of Torah amidst their ranks, and they fervently believed that God would deliver them, sustain them, and rescue them from the wrath of Antiochus’ Seleucid war machine. A strong contingent of the Maccabee ranks, were made up of the Hasidim, or ‘pious ones’, who were be the descendents of the Pharisees and Zealots. These men were fiercely loyal to the Torah, the commandments and traditions of their forefathers and would gladly die in order to preserve their faith. The Hasidim guarded the Torah, building a fence of protection around it (as stated in Pirke Avot- Ethics of the Fathers), and were true men of faith in the God of Israel.
Upon the outbreak of the revolt, the Maccabees refused to bow the knee to Seleucid pressure which demanded that they cease: the practice and study of Torah, circumcision of their sons on the eighth day, gathering to worship in houses of prayer or the temple, prayer, and other elements of traditional, biblical Jewish faith. History clearly shows us that many Jews were intimidated and therefore compromised their faith in an effort to “fit in”, but the Jews of Judea, including the Hasidim and Maccabees, out rightly refused. The historical accounts of 1st and 2nd Maccabees demonstrate this refusal to obey Seleucid law as the Maccabees smashed down pagan altars, continued to study Torah, circumcised sons in the villages, and prayed openly as Jews.
Over and over in the Apocryphal accounts of the Maccabees we see prayer to the God of Israel and a genuine faith that He will not abandon them, plastered across it’s pages. We especially see this character of God clearly defined in the Bible throughout the history of Israel. From Moses to King David, to the righteous kings of Judah or the Jews exiled in Babylon, the yearning hope that God will defend His people and avenge them is a strong tone. In the Bible, we see divine intervention, at times, strike down the enemies of Israel, such as the account in the book of Isaiah concerning the plague that wiped out most of Assyrian King Sennacherib’s army in the year 701 B.C.. However, most of the conflicts and happenings in the Bible, pertaining to the enemies of Israel, are displayed with God encouraging Israel to physically march to war through actions of divine judgement or self-defense. We see generals, prophets, prophetesses, and kings of Israel praying to God and seeking wisdom. Whether this is Moses against the Amalekites, Joshua on the eve of battle with Jericho, King David’s war against the Philistines, or King Hezekiah pleading to God about the Assyrian threat, the belief that God would never abandon His covenant people is not something to take lightly. This in no way should paint the picture of ancient Israel being a warmongering nation, as it is clear in the Scriptures that special service was to be given to strangers in the land or other nations who did not provoke them to war, but it should reveal the reality of those days and the hostile nations of the ancient world.
In the historical accounts of the Bible, we see a clear picture in which the ancient people of Israel invaded a hostile land (by the direct word of God) which was made up of wicked nations. Israel was to be at times a tool of judgement by God who had given these nations centuries of time to repent. Thus, the Maccabees viewed themselves as cut from the same cloth. These men and women, who were firmly educated in the Torah and history of their people, recognized the commonalities and dangers they now faced, as seen in past generations. They were a tiny fragment of righteous people, surrounded in a sea of paganism which sought to obliterate them. The Maccabees had no choice but to trust in the promises that God would uphold the covenant, see their righteous cause, and give them victory. The faith of the Maccabees, and the reflection of their strong biblical conviction, already cemented into their hearts, cannot be ignored when weighing out their actions against the Greek armies who marched against them.
By, Peter J. Fast
Like what you read? Keep an eye out for my second novel, 164 B.C. A War of the Jews – to be published this summer 2014 (click on the “Novels” link on my webpage for more info)
A very interesting reunion has happened. No, Brad Pitt and Jennifer Aniston aren’t getting back together, instead it is a collection of the world’s oldest masks, 12 to be exact and dating back 9,000 years according to sources, being displayed in one exhibit. Found in Israel, the masks will be joining a unique collection in the Israel Museum of Jerusalem where people from all over the world will have the chance to look at the primitive stone masks. Archaeologists and researchers conclude that the masks were most likely created to depict the faces of dead ancestors, to ward off evil spirits, or to be used as ritualistic masks of pagan worship connected with medicine or magic.
It is also a significant time to be unveiling such masks in Israel, for the Jewish festival of Purim is just around the bend. Purim is the holiday where Jews all over the world read from the Megillah (Book of Esther in the Bible) and remember when Queen Esther and her Uncle Mordecai gained favour from the king of Persia to save all the Jews of the realm from the evil plots of Haman. During this feast, Jewish children, and party-goers, parade around in costume (sort of like Halloween), eat pastries called, “Haman’s Ears/Pocket/Hat” and celebrate God’s provisional saving power.
Here is the link to the article on Jerusalem Post.
Peter J. Fast
This is a gift to the world in regards to the understanding and knowledge of the 13th century B.C.E.. It is a wonderful thing that such treasures, as discovered in Israel and other places, can be open to the public for viewing and I know that I will be one of the first in line to see such incredible artifacts and pieces from the ancient world. If I know one thing, the Israel Antiquity Authority handles with excellent and professional care every item and does an outstanding job in their exhibits and relaying to the public their findings and the history behind them. I invite you to click on the link below and read this article written by Sharon Udasin for the Jerusalem Post. Enjoy!
By, Peter J. Fast
His Rise to Power
In the lands of Pontus and Armenia Minor (northern Anatolia- present day Turkey) a king would arise from a long line of rulers that had stood diametrically opposed to the emerging power of Rome. In the year 120 B.C., Mithridates VI would rise to be king of an empire that would once again challenge the supremacy of the known world from the ever tightening grasp of Roman influence. In time, Mithridates would take the title, “the Great” or Megas and would also be known as Eupator Dionysius. The title, “Eupator” means, “born of a noble father” and his connection to the god of wine and revelry, Dionysius (Bacchus-Roman), is evident.
To understand the opposition Mithridates VI felt towards Rome we must explore his early roots, ancestry, and his rise to power as a influential king. Mithridates was a prince of Persian and Greek Macedonian ancestry. He claimed descent from the Persian King Darius I, and was descended from the generals and kings of Alexander the Great: Antigonus I Monophthalmus, Seleucus I Nicator, and Regent, Antipater (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mithridates_VI_of_Pontus). Mithridates was raised in the Kingdom of Pontus and had direct ties with the Seleucid Kingdom. As royalty, he would grow up in the courts of Pontus, learn how to dictate and rule an empire, but most importantly to hold onto power and resist all influence of the perceived threat and enemy of Rome.
The previous ruler and king, Mithridates V, would be assassinated by poison at a banquet in 120 B.C. in the city of Sinope, the same place where Mithridates VI was born, and the kingdom would pass to Mithridates VI and his brother Mithridates Chrestus. However, they were both too young to rule and the throne would be temporarily led by their mother, Laodice VI as regent. She would rule as regent from 120-116 B.C. (perhaps to 113 B.C.) and it became known that she favoured Mithridates Chrestus over his brother Mithridates, and so Mithridates escaped his mother, (whom he felt desired to kill him) and went into hiding.
Between the years 116-113 B.C. history shows us that Mithridates returned to Pontus, and in a series of events was hailed as “King” by the people which was a challenge to his mother and brother who had been ruling as co-regent. Through this grab for power, Mithridates was able to usurp the throne, and threw both his mother and brother into prison and both were shown clemency. Later, Mithridates mother Laodice VI would die of natural causes in prison and his brother (Mithridates Chrestus) would also die, however it is not clear if this was a natural death or an execution. Thus, Mithridates VI would finally stand alone as the sole ruler and king of Pontus. He gave both his mother and brother a royal funeral, and following this took his older sister (of 16 years), also named Laodice, as his wife to preserve the royal bloodlines and to insure the succession of legitimate children which was a common practice among Persian rulers and found among the dynasties of the Seleucid and Ptolemies. His ideals soon became clear, Mithridates VI, now king of Pontus and a vast kingdom, desired to make his empire the dominant force to reckon with in the Black Sea region and the Anatolia. Time would soon tell.
His Obsession with Poison
Perhaps because of the common use of poison as a tool for assassination, and because the King Mithridates V was murdered by poison, Mithridates VI soon developed a paranoia that he to might one day succumb to such a fate. The understanding that a king of much power and influence has enemies, is always a clear notion. With the fact that in those times, slipping poison into food or drink was a reality that had been one of the choice methods of assassination for thousands of years, Mithridates began a rigid program to educate himself on every form of poison. It was common for him to mix different herbs together, develop lethal poisons and then take small, self-administered, non-lethal doses in order to ensure that his immune system would be able to survive. He studied everything he could get his hands on, and consulted some of his most trusted advisers. Such was his desire to avoid death by poison, that it became a serious fear of his in an attempt to make sure he was immune to every type and consistency of poison. In our present day, this practice has become known as, Mithridatism which is a system that is practiced in parts of the world and in unique fields, such as snake handlers or people who work with poisons of a special nature.
His War with Rome
With a desire to expand his kingdom, Mithridates set out on a series of conquests that would eventually land him in the very lap of fighting Rome. Mithridates subjugated the people of Colchis and then clashed with the Scythian King Palacus in the Pontic steppe. Other kingdoms surrendered to Mithridates, such as the Crimea and Bosporan kingdoms in return for Mithridates to protect them against the Scythian power. Within time, and after a number of engagements where the Scythian’s lost numerous battles with heavy losses, they submitted to Mithridates and accepted him as their overlord. The next step, however would be crucial and lead directly to confrontation with Rome.
After great success in the Crimea, the young Mithridates turned his attention to deeper in the Anatolia region and the rise of the Roman Republic which was nearing him. Close to the borders of Mithridates VI’s kingdom, reigned King Nicomedes III of Bithynia who was steering his kingdom to an anti-Pontic alliance with Rome which Mithridates clearly did not approve of. In past years, Nicomedes III and Mithridates VI had coexisted with a shaky agreement, but now there was a fall out between the two kings over the area of Cappadocia, and Nicomedes III lost a number of hard fought battles. Reeling from the defeats and feeling the pressure from Mithridates VI’s ever encroaching threat, King Nicomedes III of Bithynia had no choice but to call on the assistance of his fostering alliance with Rome. For Mithridates VI, this left him no choice but to engage head on with Rome, if he ever desired to continue expansion.
Thus, Roman legions would intervene, on behalf of Nicomedes III twice during the conflicts of 95-92 B.C., forcing Mithridates VI to a standstill and bolstering up defenses so the Pontic king could not expand. The next ruler of Bithynia was Nicomedes VI and Mithridates planned and conspired to overthrow the new ruler, but he failed and the Bithynia ruler, at the behest of his Roman advisers, declared war against Pontus. At this time, however, Rome was entangled in the mess of the Social War, and the Italian countryside was a slew of inner fighting, murder, and pillage for dominance and control. During this time only two Roman legions remained in Macedonia and with a coordinated invasion alongside an army from Bithynia, they attacked the Kingdom of Pontus in 89 B.C.
However, things would quickly swing in Mithdirates’ favour as he would trounce and defeat the Roman-allied army and drive them out swiftly. In the wake of defeat, the victorious armies of Mithridates were welcomed into Anatolia where they conquered it in full in the year 88 B.C.. Mithridates then set out upon orchestrating a massacre of all Roman and Italian settlers who remained in Anatolian cities wiping out the entire Roman presence, 80,000 in all. This incident would forever be known as the “Asiatic Vespers” and the Romans would respond by raising a large invasion force.
Mithridates set himself up as the champion of Hellenism and having absorbed Greeks and Ionian Greeks into much of his newly expanded kingdom, made himself appear as the saviour of Greek ideals and life. Thus, Mithridates would be accepted by Athens who would defect to his side and welcome him into mainland Greece. During this time, Mithridates also sped up his vicious war against Rome, even bringing it to the island of Rhodes where he besieged the colony with a war fleet. With this, the neighbouring kingdom of Armenia, King Tigranes the Great, established an alliance with Mithridates by marrying one of his daughters, and would later become instrumental in the coming war with Rome.
The First Mithridatic War would see the Roman General Lucius Cornelius Sulla win a number of decisive victories over Mithridates VI and force the Pontic king out of Greece altogether. However, after receiving troubling news about anarchy in Rome from his political enemy Gaius Marius, Sulla would make a hasty treaty with Mithridates and leave for Italy. The Roman forces which remained, would be commanded by a man named, Lucius Licinius Murena who would by the year 83 B.C. pursue the war with Mithridates (out of account that Mithridates rallied his forces and posed another threat) since the Senate had never ratified Sulla’s treaty to begin with. This would usher in the Second Mithridatic War which would see the seasoned forces of Mithridates destroy the “green” legions of Murena before a shaky peace was reached in the year 81 B.C..
When Necomedes VI died nearly a decade later, he left in his will his desire to bequest his kingdom over to Rome. For Mithridates VI this would be the worse situation the Pontic king could ever conceive of as he raised a large army and attacked again prompting the Third Mithridatic War which would last from 73-63 B.C.. Yet, for Mithridates and his long arduous record with fighting Rome, this would be his last war.
First Rome responded with sending armies under General Lucullus and then finally under Pompey who would drive deeply into the Pontic Kingdom and destroy all resistance by 63 B.C., thus ending the war on a large scale. Mithridates VI, however, would survive for a little while longer as he fled with a small army to Colchis (modern Georgia) to the lands of the Crimea. There, with his eldest son, Mithridates VI made plans to assemble a great and vast army to once again march against Pompey and the Romans and take back his captured kingdom. Yet, soon his eldest son rejected the plan and refused to march to war, Mithridates had his son killed and seized control of the Bosporan kingdom. He sought to raise forces but would struggle as inner civil war among his family and Roman exiles within his army would rage. Finally, Mithridates would withdraw in shame to the citadel in Panticapaeum where he was surrounded by his enemies who sought to overthrow him. With no way out, and the great king and enemy of Rome sensing his end, he decided on his terms to take the noble way out…suicide. However, his years of strengthening his immune system against the use of poison would prove to be his greatest enemy in his final moments as the despondent and furious king attempted to take his life by poison but found it was to no avail. Thus, ordering a mercenary to run him through with his sword, Mithridates committed suicide and brought to an end the great Pontic Kingdom and its ruler who hated Rome. In the end, ironically, it would be a representative of Rome, the champion Pompey Magnus, who would take the body of Mithridates VI, and bury him in the rock-cut tombs of his ancestors in Amasya, which had been the old capital of the kingdom of Pontus, and the heart of Mithridates VI Eupator Dionysius’ kingdom.
By: Peter J. Fast
This is a great article I pulled from yahoo news. Check this out and be amazed at once again how important the primary sources and original writings are from the ancient world.
CHICAGO – It was a monumental project with modest beginnings: a small group of scholars and some index cards. The plan was to explore a long-dead language that would reveal an ancient world of chariots and concubines, royal decrees and diaries — and omens that came from the heavens and sheep livers.
The year: 1921. The place: The University of Chicago. The project: Assembling an Assyrian dictionary based on words recorded on clay or stone tablets unearthed from ruins in Iraq, Iran, Syria and Turkey, written in a language that hadn’t been uttered for more than 2,000 years. The scholars knew the project would take a long time. No one quite expected how very long.
Decades passed. The team grew. Scholars arrived from Vienna, Paris, Copenhagen, Jerusalem, Berlin, Helsinki, Baghdad and London, joining others from the U.S. and Canada. One generation gave way to the next, one century faded into the next. Some signed on early in their careers; they were still toiling away at retirement. The work was slow, sometimes frustrating and decidedly low-tech: Typewriters. Mimeograph machines. And index cards. Eventually, nearly 2 million of them.
And now, 90 years later, a finale. The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary is now officially complete — 21 volumes of Akkadian, a Semitic language (with several dialects, including Assyrian) that endured for 2,500 years. The project is more encyclopedia than glossary, offering a window into the ancient society of Mesopotamia, now modern-day Iraq, through every conceivable form of writing: love letters, recipes, tax records, medical prescriptions, astronomical observations, religious texts, contracts, epics, poems and more.
This is just a summary of the article.:)
For the complete article just click on the hyperlink title and enjoy! These sorts of discoveries and careful, tedious, planning always amazes me. I like to think of archaeologists, historians, and people involved in textual criticism as puzzle masters (and anybody else I may have forgot:). They get down and dirty in the dirt and rock and look at what appears as a mess to most people, and then have to assemble it all to get a clear picture. They must have fantastic imaginations. 🙂 After this, they report their findings to the world and we are all amazed. My wife and I had the privilege to spend a week on a dig at Ramat Rachel in Israel which is located on the outskirts of Jerusalem, so we have experienced some of the intensity of a dig, 🙂 and it is hard work but rewarding. We uncovered oil lamps, pottery, coins, seals, and much more from the 5th century B.C.E. Israelite period right through to the Byzantine and Early Islamic periods.
I hope you enjoyed this article and let me know your thoughts.
Peter J. Fast
I invite you to explore the dark corridors of ancient history and see it come to life.
The study of ancient history has always fascinated me for as long as I can remember. Whether it be the image of Greek hoplites crammed together in a phalanx, or legions marching stoically across the battlefield I believe it has the power to ignite the imagination of the unknown. The ancient world, particularly around the Mediterranean and Mesopotamia, which is what I focus on, was a world very different then what we know today and has stirred poets, politicians, researchers, archaeologists, geologists, and many others to document their findings, write about history seen through their eyes, and try to grasp an understanding of how the ancients thought, behaved, and interacted with one another. This is the beginning of what it means to look into history.
We, in the 21st century, can only look through a key hole back through thousands of years of history and unearth what we believe happened based on evidence, be it archaeological and primary written sources. I believe that the study of history is tantamount to understanding how we have ended up where we are. It involves the exploration into our political society, how we function in society, make war, live our lives, and much more which is mostly based on Greco-Roman ideals. To understand the past can open up that key hole further in how we should and should not live our lives and what choices we should or should not take. As George Santayana said, “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” I seek not only to remember and study the past, but to bring it to life through my writing and hopefully, God willing, give people a glimpse into ancient history of how the people of those times may have worshiped, thought, loved, ruled, fought, suffered, succeeded, died, and lived. We even see the fascination in culture and history taking place in the ancient world with figures such as Alexander the Great or Roman Emperor Hadrian (to just name a few).
“It is the echoes of the past that turn our ear to what may have taken place, and this curiosity, intrenched in so many people, is something we cannot run from.”
Peter J. Fast
Documenting ancient history, why bother?
Battles, sieges, generals, suffering, and victory has always been the price tag of ancient civilizations as they struggled together in a changing world as empires and kingdoms marched on leaving many in the dust. Whether it was Spartans and Athenians, Macedonians and Persians, Carthaginians and Romans, or Seleucid’s and Ptolemies, all shook the earth, all changed history, and all were documented and recorded. To understand the ancients, we must turn to the witnesses and people living at the time and what they wrote. Often, we must understand that much of the ancient records of those days were intertwined with their mythological stances, such as Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey, or The Epic of Gilgamesh, there is still much to learn outside of these boundaries however, once we explore the ancient writing or what is known as primary sources. I personally have focused my time and studies on ancient Greece, Rome, and Israel.
However, there is also a greater picture of the people’s and nations living before and after these times which also have piqued my interest over the years which has deepened a desire to broaden my knowledge and appreciation for the complex and diverse world in the B.C.E. years. The timeline is long and the list even longer but the ample amount of rich stories, history, battles, governments, and search for power has never escaped the essence of mankind. I have enjoyed studying such people as the ancient Egyptians, Persians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Carthaginians, Hittites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Etruscan’s, and many more. The fascinating thing regarding the wealth of knowledge that has been compiled in libraries and universities throughout the world is that even if you had a dozen lifetimes it would not be enough to fully grasp and master the ancient world. Thus, the primary sources are priceless as they offer one of our best ways to glimpse back through time at what life was like and how it happened.
For me, over the years I have amassed a collection of such sources in which I have studied to better aid my own writing and research as I work towards publishing and establishing myself as an author. Sources that were indispensable for my study were: Polybius, Livy, Caesar, Appian, Cicero, Xenophon, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Plutarch, Homer, Virgil, Herodotus, Thucydides, Flavius Josephus, Plato, Socrates, Philo of Alexandria, and of course all other ancient texts (i.e. Dead Sea Scrolls, Book of the Dead), be they on papyrus, or chiseled into stone.
To grasp an understanding of Jewish history (whether it be pre-temple period or later) the Bible is by far my favorite source. Not only does the Bible shed light on the history of ancient Israel, it also builds an excellent picture for the nations surrounding it as this picture also corresponds with extra-biblical sources, archaeology, and geography. The Bible is vital in understanding the journey for the Jewish people, from Mount Sinai right up into the Second Temple period (with the Christian scriptures/New Testament). It shows their struggle against paganism, worldly pursuits, and how God called them to be a separate people and a light to the world. This is essential in understanding how the Jews would have thus perceived the Greeks and Romans (in later years) and why they reacted the way they did or rebelled, such as in the age of the Maccabees (167-160 B.C.E), or with the two Jewish revolts against the Romans in 66-73 C.E. and 132-135 C.E. The Babylonian Talmud and other Jewish texts such as the stories of the Midrash can also bring to light much of how the Jews thought, practiced their faith, and resisted the pressures from the outside world, mainly Hellenism, which is Greek lifestyle and hedonism in a nutshell. Also, 1st and 2nd Maccabees of the Apocryphal writings can assist in gathering together a picture of what transgressed and how things played out.
I hope I have been able to touch on a few interesting subjects, and I invite you to join me as I move towards publishing my first historical-fiction novel based on the events surrounding the Roman siege of Jerusalem in 70 C.E. and the destruction of the Jewish Temple at the hands of Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the son of the Emperor and commander of the legions of Judea. For a synopsis of the novel, character list, and further information, just select the tab, “70 A.D.” and journey back in time. Also, join the group “70 A.D. A Novel about the Jewish War with Rome” on Facebook and stay connected as I move towards the completion and publication of the book.
Peter J. Fast