The strength of the Pantheon: a question of concrete?

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I recently stumbled across an interesting article, sent to me by my dear brother-in-law. The title, ‘Why the Pantheon Hasn’t Crumbled’ immediately caught my attention, as does anything to do with ancient Rome. My wife and I have visited Rome a number of times and upon our first trip, we made a pit stop at the famous Pantheon to take in its breathtaking architecture as well as its incredible historical significance to 2nd century A.D. Rome. The Pantheon literally dominates the plaza before it where beautiful sculpted fountains and buildings stand before it, as if blessing it with reverence. It’s towering columns, intricate capitals and domed roof all reflect the beauty of Roman design, echoing with the shadows of history amongst the bustle of tourists. If you have not seen the Pantheon, I do hope that you will include this in your visit, should you ever venture upon Italy’s shores.

By Peter J. Fast

(Pictures taken by Peter J. Fast)

For the article ‘Why the Pantheon Hasn’t Crumbled’ by Colin Schultz of Smithsonian.com, I have included the link below, so click and enjoy the read.

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/scientific-reason-why-pantheon-hasnt-crumbled-180953627/?no-ist

 

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The story of Hanukkah

IMG_5202Hanukkah, that Jewish holiday where they make silly music videos and eat all kinds of foods immersed in oil. If you have never tasted deep-fried sufganyot (i.e. special jelly doughnuts) then you must. However, apart from sufganyot, what are some familiar sights you will see? Well, if you are in Israel, or at least in a densely populated Jewish neighbourhood, then you will see decorations, people shopping for gifts, hear the music of the Maccabeats, see dreidels for sale, and lots of cheer…plus we cannot forget tasty pastries. The other most notable sight is the Hanukkiah (candelabra with nine stems) in the window’s of people’s homes. The middle candle is called the shamash or the ‘servant/attendant’ candle and that is the one that lights all the others. The festival of Hanukkah, otherwise known as Festival of Lights or Dedication, always begins at sundown and is celebrated for eight days with an extra candle being lit each night as the holiday progresses. Thus, by the eighth day of Hanukkah, you will have a glowing Hanukkiah with nine burning lights (which naturally includes the shamash which always burns). The lighting of the first candle begins on the far right of the lamp stand, and then for every new day an extra candle is added moving towards the left down the Hanukkiah. When lighting the candles one progresses from left to right as new candles are added. There are three blessings (brachot) which are recited the first night when lighting the first candle, and then all the other seven nights only two blessings are recited for the lighting.

But why do Jews light candles in the first place? What are the origins of Hanukkah and why do they love to cook things in oil?

To answer this question we must go back to the year 167 B.C. where the land of Israel was under the control of the Seleucid King Antiochus Epiphanes IV. At that time, Antiochus was attempting to strengthen his realm, against fears of the growing power of Rome in the west. So, Antiochus created edicts and laws that everyone living in his empire had to adopt Hellenism (Greek ways and lifestyle, which also meant they had to accept pagan gods). Antiochus did not foresee this as a problem, for everyone living in his kingdom worshipped multiple gods to begin with, that is everyone but the Jews. Some Jews, who were Hellenized, accepted the king’s laws, for they would rather be Hellenists than oppose the king. But many Jews in the Satrapy of Judea resisted. Thus, a full-scale persecution erupted where it was forbidden for Jews to go to the Temple to worship the God of Israel, read and study the Torah, circumcise their sons, pray, and meet together for worship. Anyone caught doing this was imprisoned, tortured, or murdered. Jews were burned alive in Jerusalem, women were hurled from the walls with their infant sons, and the populace was terrorized. In an effort to flaunt his authority, Antiochus sent his Royal Emissary, Apelles, to Jerusalem and on the 25th of Kislev an image of Zeus (depicted in the likeness of Antiochus for his name Epiphanes meant God-manifest) was erected in the Jewish Temple and a swine was sacrificed on the Burnt Altar. Along with this, Apelles was instructed to travel to all the villages of Judea and force the Jews to erect altars to Zeus and sacrifice swine upon them as a sign of loyalty to the king. Needless to say, this did not bode well for the Jews.dreidels

When Apelles, and a small guard of Seleucid mercenaries, arrived in the village of Modiin he met with the village elder, a priest named Mattathias ben Yohannan. Now, Mattathias had five sons: Johanan, Simon, Judah, Eleazar, and Jonathan and they were all devout men. Apelles instructed Mattathias to assemble the village in their best clothes, build an altar, and sacrifice a pig. Mattathias obeyed…but only partially. He assembled all the inhabitants of Modiin in the village center but then refused to build the altar or touch the pig. Apelles forced the inhabitants to build the altar (or had his own men do it) and then began to threaten Mattathias to kill the pig himself or all hell would break loose. Mattathias staunchly refused and before things could get out of hand, a Hellenized Jew offered to make the sacrifice. Upon seeing this, Mattathias rushed the altar, killed the Hellenized Jew and killed Apelles. After that, the entire village attacked the Seleucid guard and slaughtered them all. Then, Mattathias said, “Whoever has zeal for the commandments and Torah follow me.” The Jews of Modiin fled and created a mountain base in the Gophna region. Thus started the rebellion. Shortly after this, Mattathias took ill and died but the mantle of leadership was passed to his son Judah, who became known as Judah Maccabee or Judah the Hammer. There are slight interpretive differences on the exact meaning of Maccabee but we will stick with the common interpretation, ‘Hammer’.

Once Judah was in charge, he set about staging a full rebellion. Mustering together the villages of Judea, they raised hundreds of volunteers who would fight with51 them, and soon the Jerusalem Seleucid garrison could not repel the revolt. Judah and his men, who became known as Maccabees, became experts in the craft of ambush, and began to slaughter Seleucid patrols on the roads in the hill country. Eventually, Philip, the commander of Jerusalem, had to beg for help from the Governor of Samaria, a man known as Apollonius. In an attempt to squash the revolt, Apollonius march a force of 2,500 men directly south towards Jerusalem. Judah and his army, which numbered less than half of Apollonius’ force, ambushed him among the hills, managed to kill him and wipe out his army. After that, in the year 166, a general named Seron marched to relieve Jerusalem with 4,400 men. He to failed and was killed with his army scattered and defeated.

Once word reached Antioch, the king’s Viceroy Lysias, issued strict orders for the Maccabees to be crushed. These orders were given to three generals named Nicanor, Gorgias, and Ptolemy. The king was campaigning in Parthia, and Lysias wanted the Jewish rebellion wiped out immediately, so Nicanor and Gorgias took a force of 22,000 men, with Ptolemy directing the campaign from his new governorship in the city of Ptolemeus. Nicanor and Gorgias marched south along the coast and then struck inland where they set up a major fortified camp near Emmaus. From there, they scouted the land and discovered a second Maccabee base near Mizpah which was not far away. So, Nicanor and Gorgias conspired, and Gorgias came up with a plan for them to divide their forces. He would march on Mizpah, surprise the Maccabees and defeat them. Nicanor naturally liked the idea and Gorgias set out with around 10,000 men. Now, at Mizpah, Judah Maccabee caught word of what Gorgias was doing and so he took  his 6,000 men and abandoned the camp, however not before making it appear as though they were still there. Then he moved through the darkness with his army and journeyed through the hills until he arrived before the Emmaus camp and Nicanor’s slumbering army. Judah then gave orders for his army to form up, and at first light they attacked. Through a heavy battle, Nicanor was defeated with 3,000 casualties and his men fled to the coast. Judah was triumphant and then he had his men plunder the camp before setting fire to half of it. Once this was complete he waited for Gorgias to return. Now, during the night, Gorgias came upon the Maccabee base at Mizpah, and seeing the torch-light and camp still set up, took the bait and attacked it. However, when he found no Maccabees he assumed they had fled into the hills at the news of his approaching army. So, Gorgias gave chase and spent all the night pursuing a phantom. Finally, by morning, an exhausted and angry Gorgias decided to return to Emmaus only to find the Maccabees in possession of it and Nicanor defeated. With that, Gorgias retreated in shame.

Once this news reached Lysias he knew the only way to defeat the Maccabees was for him to personally lead the next army. Thus, he set out raising a large force between 40,000-45,000 men. He marched from Antioch in the spring of 164 and decided on a different route. He headed south, skirting past Samaria and Judea and then struck into the lands of Idumea. Then he turned east, marched his force inland and towards Beit Zur with the desire to head north and approach Jerusalem from the south. His reasoning was simple, the Maccabees had not been operating that far south, would not be comfortable in those lands, and the land was filled with pro-Greek cities loyal to the Seleucid kingdom. If Lysias could get to Jerusalem, he could relieve the garrison, strengthen his army and then set out into Judea with calculated heavy assaults and destroy the Maccabee uprising. However, Judah knew this all to well and leading a force of 10,000 Maccabees he managed to ambush Lysias, slaughter 5,000 of his men and scatter them. Lysias then decided to retreat and Judah marched his army to a vulnerable Jerusalem.

When Judah arrived at Jerusalem, he found the local Seleucid garrison hemmed up in the Akra (a large Seleucid fortress within the city walls next to the Temple Mount) and so Judah and his men strolled into the city and captured it. When they ascended to the Temple Mount they found everything in disrepair and after ordering ritually pure priests to cleanse it, he had the profaned altar rebuilt, the image of Zeus torn down and destroyed  and the Temple rededicated.

The legend goes that they only found enough oil to light the great Menorah for one day, yet it would take them eight days to make more oil and the great Menorah was supposed to always burn continuously. So, in faith, they lit the Menorah and it burned miraculously for eight days until they could make more oil. This is where the story of Hanukkah and this is why oil is so important and the eight days of celebration. The Jews celebrate Hanukkah as God’s redemption of His people from tyranny and the freedom that was gained through their struggle. Through the line of the Maccabees, the Hasmonean dynasty was planted, which brought about nearly 110 years of Jewish independence before Rome came in and conquered the land.

dreidelHappy Hanukkah

Cheers

Peter J. Fast

What do the Romans have to do with Nanotechnology?

So, I came across one of the most bizarre, yet amazing articles the other day which involves a very unique look into a 1,600 year old piece of 4th century Roman art. This is a kind of “archaeology meets modern science” and I know each and every one of you will thoroughly enjoy reading this article published by Smithsonian.com. If the picture below doesn’t intrigue you enough to click on the article link, then please take your temperature…you may have come down with a life threatening disease…maybe the Black Plague. Anyway, enjoy the article and be prepared to get blown away by the incredible mystery of the Lycurgus Cup and the many secrets it will unveil.

By, Peter J. Fast

phenomenon-Glow-With-Flow-631http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/This-1600-Year-Old-Goblet-Shows-that-the-Romans-Were-Nanotechnology-Pioneers-220563661.html 

Artifacts discovered from First Century A.D. Siege of Jerusalem

ShowImage.ashxRecently, artifacts have been unearthed near Robinson’s Arch which is located at the south-western end of the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem. The artifacts, which contained three cooking pots and a ceramic oil lamp, were discovered in a hidden cistern beneath the ground near where the famous arch once stood 2,000 years ago. This testifies to the extreme conditions during the siege where Jews found themselves with limited food and in desperate situations. The discovery of the cistern and the cooking pots also confirms the evidence Josephus gives in his “Jewish Wars” where he describes the starvation of the people and how many would hide out in cisterns built beneath their homes in order to eat what little food remained. The discovery of the cistern, also confirms that people could not trust their fellow neighbors or the rebels for fear that their food would be seized, and so they would eat in secret.

The period of the Roman siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 A.D. is a dark period in Jewish history and culminated in the city being destroyed and the Temple burned.IMG_0057 Today, this destruction can be viewed at the Davidson Archaeological Center with the massive stones that lay at the foot of the Temple Mount having been hurled onto the streets below by the Romans who pried them apart in search for melting gold from the Temple. One can also view the burnt foundations of a priestly home in the “Burnt House Museum” which is located in the Jewish Quarter not far from the Kotel (Western Wall). Both of these archaeological discoveries, including the cistern with the cooking pots, attest to the desperate struggle between the Jews and Romans in the first century A.D.

By, Peter J. Fast

To read more of the recent discovery click on the link below.

http://www.jpost.com/National-News/Evidence-found-of-2000-year-old-siege-of-Jerusalem-318002

To sign or not to sign a book…that is the question.

IMG_0961The months of February and March were exciting times for me as a published author. I was able to hold two private book signing parties for close friends in the humble atmosphere of my abode. It was a wonderful time of good wine, cheese, discussion, and celebration. I was able to extend many “thank you’s” to those who made it possible for the publication of my first historical/fiction novel, 70 A.D. A WAR OF THE JEWS.

The party included a brief synopsis of the history leading up to the First Jewish Revolt against Rome, an explanation of the Jewish and Roman worldIMG_1206 in the First Century, a description of the book, and a public reading of the prologue. Then, for those interested, I signed purchased copies and we all finished the celebration with some wonderful champagne. I am pleased to say that both parties had a warm, friendly, cherished group of people who took part in this important achievement in my life, and they were able to toast further books and future endeavours.

IMG_0973IMG_0974I thank you all for reading the posts on this website, for following the articles I write, for purchasing copies of my book, and for your steadfast encouragement and support you have shown me.

Cheers,

Peter J. Fast

*To purchase a copy of, “70 A.D.  A WAR OF THE JEWS” click here, on the link and you will be sent to my  page dedicated to the release of my novel. Once there, simply click on the preferred tab of your choice of online stores.

70 A.D.  A WAR OF THE JEWS is available at: Amazon, Barnes and Noble, and through the publisher, AuthorHouse.

Incredible Roman Mosaic Discovered

So, recently I came across this stunning article concerning an enormous 1600 square foot Roman mosaic that has recently been uncovered this year in southern Turkey. It is the remnants of a huge bathhouse, which includes a large swimming pool. The mosaic includes some of the most intricate geometric designs and has been well preserved from the sands of time. I invite you to read the article written by Stephanie Pappas of LiveSceince and you can do so by clicking on the link below. Enjoy.

http://ca.news.yahoo.com/enormous-roman-mosaic-found-under-farmers-field-191743498.html

Comments by, Peter J. Fast

A Look At Caesarea Maritima And The Apostle Paul


13 And after some days King Agrippa and Bernice came to Caesarea to greet Festus. 14 When they had been there many days, Festus laid Paul’s case before the king, saying: “There is a certain man left a prisoner by Felix, 15 about whom the chief priests and the elders of the Jews informed me, when I was in Jerusalem, asking for a judgment against him. 16 To them I answered, ‘It is not the custom of the Romans to deliver any man to destruction before the accused meets the accusers face to face, and has opportunity to answer for himself concerning the charge against him.’ 17 Therefore when they had come together, without any delay, the next day I sat on the judgment seat and commanded the man to be brought in. 18 When the accusers stood up, they brought no accusation against him of such things as I supposed, 19 but had some questions against him about their own religion and about a certain Jesus, who had died, whom Paul affirmed to be alive. 20 And because I was uncertain of such questions, I asked whether he was willing to go to Jerusalem and there be judged concerning these matters. 21 But when Paul appealed to be reserved for the decision of Augustus, I commanded him to be kept till I could send him to Caesar.”

22 Then Agrippa said to Festus, “I also would like to hear the man myself.”

“Tomorrow,” he said, “you shall hear him.”

23 So the next day, when Agrippa and Bernice had come with great pomp, and had entered the auditorium with the commanders and the prominent men of the city, at Festus’ command Paul was brought in.

Acts 25:13-23 (NKJV)

            The city of Caesarea Maritima was located in the Roman province of Samaria, with Judea and Idumea to the south, and Galilee and Syro-Phoenicia to the north. It was developed along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in northern Israel along the Sharon Plain, which runs thirty by ten miles and is a flat area that consists of soils washed down from the hills. To the north can be found the Shephlah Carmel, which is a range of mountains that runs inland to the east. This creates medium-sized ridges with broad lush and rich fertile plains and valleys between them. Since it is further north, Caesarea Maritima can receive between 28-32 inches of rain during the rainy season (December to March) and experience sea storms and high tides. However, during the heat of summer, the rich soils around the city and in the coastal plain are excellent for growing citrus crops which can still be seen today.

            Caesarea Maritima was built and dedicated by Herod the Great in the year 10 BC, after twelve years of construction, and established as the main port city of the land. He built it in a Hellenistic fashion as it possessed a theater, amphitheater, hippodrome, temples, and a man-made port of breakwaters, docks, and quays which could harbor over six hundred ships. Thus it became a city of trade and commerce. Dedicated to the Emperor Augustus, the city soon became the Roman administrative capital of the land and rivaled other port cities such as Tyre, Sidon, and Byblos in the north, or Joppa in the south. Due to the soils washed down from the mountains, swamps had been created which posed as an obstacle to Herod the Great through his construction. Therefore, his plan was to drain the swamps by cutting channels to the sea, and then bring in fresh water by tunnels and aqueducts from springs located at the foot of Mount Hermon twelve miles to the northeast.

Since Caesarea Maritima was the seat of Roman power in the land, once Paul had appealed to Caesar following his arrest, he was brought to the city to be placed in confinement until he could be transported to Rome. His place of confinement is believed to be the Sea Palace which juts out into the sea upon a created land bridge of stone. It was built according to all the wealth and pleasures of the day, including swimming pools and baths, and it was most likely here that Paul would have been placed under house arrest. The reasoning behind this was since he was a Roman citizen and had appealed to Caesar, he would have had to be treated with care and this would be a likely place to hold him. The account in the Book of Acts has Festus, Governor of the land, speaking about Paul with King Agrippa II and his sister who have arrived in Caesarea. Agrippa mentions to Festus that he would like to hear Paul speak in defense and Festus makes the arrangements for the next day for it to be held in the auditorium, or amphitheater.

The importance of the city and its location along major roadways made it a prime geographical place for Paul to be held. Since it was the administrative capital and the largest port, therefore once Festus had questioned him in Jerusalem and agreed to transport Paul to Rome, Caesarea would be the natural place to send him to first. The geography of the city and its layout played a direct part in Paul’s trial. Not only was he held there, but he was given a platform to speak and defend himself in the amphitheater. Acts 25:23 mentions that Festus, King Agrippa, his sister Bernice, commanders, and prominent men of the city entered the auditorium/amphitheater and that Paul was brought before them to defend his faith. The amphitheater still stands today and has had extensive excavations done to it which reveal its size, entrances, and architecture, but also show the places where dignitaries would have sat. Therefore, we know where Festus, Agrippa, and Bernice would have sat, and most likely, as trials were public events, the theater could have been full, that is with nearly five thousand people.

By, Peter J. Fast