Virgil, The Aeneid

“Arms I sing, and the man, who first from the shores of Troy came,

Fate exiled to Italy and her Lavinian strand.

Much buffeted he on flood and field by constraint of heaven,

And fell Juno’s unslumbering wrath.”

Publius Vergilius Maro (Virgil), The Aeneid – 29 A.D.

Side note: In ancient times, the Greeks and Romans believed that if one was to infuriate a goddess so powerful, she might leave you stranded on foreign shores in some distant country as revenge. An excellent collection of writings, modeled after Homer’s Odyssey, and one of Rome’s most remembered poets and writers, Virgil has taken his place among the Classics of history which have been studied for nearly two millenia by intellects, historians, poets, and musicians. Virgil has inspired people from all continents and reminds us once more, the complex world of the ancients and how they perceived the universe they were apart of and sought to put that into writing. If you have never read or studied Virgil, I highly recommend you do as the rich text, poetry and tales will lift from the pages like Homer or Euripides. Enjoy!

By: Peter J. Fast

Mithridates VI of Pontus: The Posion King Who Hated Rome

His Rise to Power

In the lands of Pontus and Armenia Minor (northern Anatolia- present day Turkey) a king would arise from a long line of rulers that had stood diametrically opposed to the emerging power of Rome. In the year 120 B.C., Mithridates VI would rise to be king of an empire that would once again challenge the supremacy of the known world from the ever tightening grasp of Roman influence. In time, Mithridates would take the title, “the Great” or Megas and would also be known as Eupator Dionysius. The title, “Eupator” means, “born of a noble father” and his connection to the god of wine and revelry, Dionysius (Bacchus-Roman), is evident.

To understand the opposition Mithridates VI felt towards Rome we must explore his early roots, ancestry, and his rise to power as a influential king. Mithridates was a prince of Persian and Greek Macedonian ancestry. He claimed descent from the Persian King Darius I, and was descended from the generals and kings of Alexander the Great: Antigonus I Monophthalmus, Seleucus I Nicator, and Regent, Antipater (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mithridates_VI_of_Pontus). Mithridates was raised in the Kingdom of Pontus and had direct ties with the Seleucid Kingdom. As royalty, he would grow up in the courts of Pontus, learn how to dictate and rule an empire, but most importantly to hold onto power and resist all influence of the perceived threat and enemy of Rome.

The previous ruler and king, Mithridates V, would be assassinated by poison at a banquet in 120 B.C. in the city of Sinope, the same place where Mithridates VI was born, and the kingdom would pass to Mithridates VI and his brother Mithridates Chrestus. However, they were both too young to rule and the throne would be temporarily led by their mother, Laodice VI as regent. She would rule as regent from 120-116 B.C. (perhaps to 113 B.C.) and it became known that she favoured Mithridates Chrestus over his brother Mithridates, and so Mithridates escaped his mother, (whom he felt desired to kill him) and went into hiding.

Between the years 116-113 B.C. history shows us that Mithridates returned to Pontus, and in a series of events was hailed as “King” by the people which was a challenge to his mother and brother who had been ruling as co-regent. Through this grab for power, Mithridates was able to usurp the throne, and threw both his mother and brother into prison and both were shown clemency. Later, Mithridates mother Laodice VI would die of natural causes in prison and his brother (Mithridates Chrestus) would also die, however it is not clear if this was a natural death or an execution. Thus, Mithridates VI would finally stand alone as the sole ruler and king of Pontus. He gave both his mother and brother a royal funeral, and following this took his older sister (of 16 years), also named Laodice, as his wife to preserve the royal bloodlines and to insure the succession of legitimate children which was a common practice among Persian rulers and found among the dynasties of the Seleucid and Ptolemies. His ideals soon became clear, Mithridates VI, now king of Pontus and a vast kingdom, desired to make his empire the dominant force to reckon with in the Black Sea region and the Anatolia. Time would soon tell.

His Obsession with Poison

Perhaps because of the common use of poison as a tool for assassination, and because the King Mithridates V was murdered by poison, Mithridates VI soon developed a paranoia that he to might one day succumb to such a fate. The understanding that a king of much power and influence has enemies, is always a clear notion. With the fact that in those times, slipping poison into food or drink was a reality that had been one of the choice methods of assassination for thousands of years, Mithridates began a rigid program to educate himself on every form of poison. It was common for him to mix different herbs together, develop lethal poisons and then take small, self-administered, non-lethal doses in order to ensure that his immune system would be able to survive. He studied everything he could get his hands on, and consulted some of his most trusted advisers. Such was his desire to avoid death by poison, that it became a serious fear of his in an attempt to make sure he was immune to every type and consistency of poison. In our present day, this practice has become known as, Mithridatism which is a system that is practiced in parts of the world and in unique fields, such as snake handlers or people who work with poisons of a special nature.

His War with Rome

With a desire to expand his kingdom, Mithridates set out on a series of conquests that would eventually land him in the very lap of fighting Rome. Mithridates subjugated the"Roman Forum Today" people of Colchis and then clashed with the Scythian King Palacus in the Pontic steppe. Other kingdoms surrendered to Mithridates, such as the Crimea and Bosporan kingdoms in return for Mithridates to protect them against the Scythian power. Within time, and after a number of engagements where the Scythian’s lost numerous battles with heavy losses, they submitted to Mithridates and accepted him as their overlord. The next step, however would be crucial and lead directly to confrontation with Rome.

After great success in the Crimea, the young Mithridates turned his attention to deeper in the Anatolia region and the rise of the Roman Republic which was nearing him. Close to the borders of Mithridates VI’s kingdom, reigned King Nicomedes III of Bithynia who was steering his kingdom to an anti-Pontic alliance with Rome which Mithridates clearly did not approve of. In past years, Nicomedes III and Mithridates VI had coexisted with a shaky agreement, but now there was a fall out between the two kings over the area of Cappadocia, and Nicomedes III lost a number of hard fought battles. Reeling from the defeats and feeling the pressure from Mithridates VI’s ever encroaching threat, King Nicomedes III of Bithynia had no choice but to call on the assistance of his fostering alliance with Rome. For Mithridates VI, this left him no choice but to engage head on with Rome, if he ever desired to continue expansion.

Thus, Roman legions would intervene, on behalf of Nicomedes III twice during the conflicts of 95-92 B.C., forcing Mithridates VI to a standstill and bolstering up defenses so the Pontic king could not expand. The next ruler of Bithynia was Nicomedes VI and Mithridates planned and conspired to overthrow the new ruler, but he failed and the Bithynia ruler, at the behest of his Roman advisers, declared war against Pontus. At this time, however, Rome was entangled in the mess of the Social War, and the Italian countryside was a slew of inner fighting, murder, and pillage for dominance and control. During this time only two Roman legions remained in Macedonia and with a coordinated invasion alongside an army from Bithynia, they attacked the Kingdom of Pontus in 89 B.C.

However, things would quickly swing in Mithdirates’ favour as he would trounce and defeat the Roman-allied army and drive them out swiftly. In the wake of defeat, the victorious armies of Mithridates were welcomed into Anatolia where they conquered it in full in the year 88 B.C.. Mithridates then set out upon orchestrating a massacre of all Roman and Italian settlers who remained in Anatolian cities wiping out the entire Roman presence, 80,000 in all. This incident would forever be known as the “Asiatic Vespers” and the Romans would respond by raising a large invasion force.

Mithridates set himself up as the champion of Hellenism and having absorbed Greeks and Ionian Greeks into much of his newly expanded kingdom, made himself appear as the saviour of Greek ideals and life. Thus, Mithridates would be accepted by Athens who would defect to his side and welcome him into mainland Greece. During this time, Mithridates also sped up his vicious war against Rome, even bringing it to the island of Rhodes where he besieged the colony with a war fleet. With this, the neighbouring kingdom of Armenia, King Tigranes the Great, established an alliance with Mithridates by marrying one of his daughters, and would later become instrumental in the coming war with Rome.

The First Mithridatic War would see the Roman General Lucius Cornelius Sulla win a number of decisive victories over Mithridates VI and force the Pontic king out of Greece altogether. However, after receiving troubling news about anarchy in Rome from his political enemy Gaius Marius, Sulla would make a hasty treaty with Mithridates and leave for Italy. The Roman forces which remained, would be commanded by a man named, Lucius Licinius Murena who would by the year 83 B.C. pursue the war with Mithridates (out of account that Mithridates rallied his forces and posed another threat) since the Senate had never ratified Sulla’s treaty to begin with. This would usher in the Second Mithridatic War which would see the seasoned forces of Mithridates destroy the “green” legions of Murena before a shaky peace was reached in the year 81 B.C..

When Necomedes VI died nearly a decade later, he left in his will his desire to bequest his kingdom over to Rome. For Mithridates VI this would be the worse situation the Pontic king could ever conceive of as he raised a large army and attacked again prompting the Third Mithridatic War which would last from 73-63 B.C.. Yet, for Mithridates and his long arduous record with fighting Rome, this would be his last war.

His Demise

First Rome responded with sending armies under General Lucullus and then finally under Pompey who would drive deeply into the Pontic Kingdom and destroy all resistance by 63 B.C., thus ending the war on a large scale. Mithridates VI, however, would survive for a little while longer as he fled with a small army to Colchis (modern Georgia) to the lands of the Crimea. There, with his eldest son, Mithridates VI made plans to assemble a great and vast army to once again march against Pompey and the Romans and take back his captured kingdom. Yet, soon his eldest son rejected the plan and refused to march to war, Mithridates had his son killed and seized control of the Bosporan kingdom. He sought to raise forces but would struggle as inner civil war among his family and Roman exiles within his army would rage. Finally, Mithridates would withdraw in shame to the citadel in Panticapaeum where he was surrounded by his enemies who sought to overthrow him. With no way out, and the great king and enemy of Rome sensing his end, he decided on his terms to take the noble way out…suicide. However, his years of strengthening his immune system against the use of poison would prove to be his greatest enemy in his final moments as the despondent and furious king attempted to take his life by poison but found it was to no avail. Thus, ordering a mercenary to run him through with his sword, Mithridates committed suicide and brought to an end the great Pontic Kingdom and its ruler who hated Rome. In the end, ironically, it would be a representative of Rome, the champion Pompey Magnus, who would take the body of Mithridates VI, and bury him in the rock-cut tombs of his ancestors in Amasya, which had been the old capital of the kingdom of Pontus, and the heart of Mithridates VI Eupator Dionysius’ kingdom.

By: Peter J. Fast

The Capitoline Wolf and the Twins: A look at the mythological roots of Roma

The Lupa Capitolina, otherwise known as the Capitoline Wolf, is one of the ancient symbols of Rome associated with its mythology and founding. It is a symbol which can still be seen all throughout Italy and the city of Rome, and continues to be associated with the Italian people (similar to the acronym S.P.Q.R- Senatus Populusque Romanus).

When one visits Rome today, they can expect to see this famous image on storm drains, paintings, sculptures, signs, emblems, and flags. It is interwoven into the Roman psyche so much that it has maintained a fusion with the people who still look back on it as the legendary foundation of their roots. But, what exactly is the legend, who told it and where did it come from?

The origins of the Capitoline Wolf are wrapped up in the tale of the two young twins, Romulus and Remus and their foster-mother, the Wolf. The legend also descends into shame and treachery when Remus is murdered by his brother followed later by the rape of the Sabine women which are the two most discreditable features of the ancient lore. In T.J. Cornell’s exhaustive history on the early and ancient roots of Rome, entitled “The Beginnings of Rome“, he thoroughly outlines the depth of this legend by adding that, “all of them (aspects of the legend) were at various times exploited by Rome’s enemies and by Christian critics of her pagan traditions.” (Cornell, pg. 60) The early tales of Rome surely did speak of pagan mythology, as well as the violence that was credited to its beginning, but the fable nonetheless has persevered over two millenniums and continues to be the favoured interpretation of Rome’s foundation due to its drama to explain its existence and founding.

The story of Romulus and Remus is short but dramatic to appease the appetite of the scholar or individual interested in mythologies of the ancient world. It has the similar colour to the story that other tales, legends and myths have from the ancient world, and also ties in the world of the gods to that of what occurs on earth as a connection to the supernatural. It would always give an individual or people more clout if one could associate their existence as being deemed and blessed by the gods. The legend echoes the common tales circulating the ancient world. It is about persons who grow up to become kings, founders, conquerors, explorers, heroes and religious leaders. “Well known examples include Cyrus of Persia, Semiramis the founder of Babylon, Sargon the founder of the Akkadian dynasty, Ion the ancestor of the Ionians, the Trojan princes Paris and Aeneas, the Greek heroes Perseus and Oedipus, the usurper Aegisthus (the murderer of Agamemnon), Cypselus the tyrant of Corinth, the Sassanian king Shapur, and Pope Gregory the Great.” (Cornell, pg. 61-62)

As the legend goes, the maternal grandfather of the twins was a man named Numitor, who was the rightful king and leader of the kingdom of Alba Longa. It was Numitor, who the Romans believed to be the descendent of the Trojan prince Aeneas who had escaped the destruction of the city, Troy. Numitor was also known as the father to Rhea Silvia who was also widely known by the name of Illia. As the legend went, Numitor’s brother, Amulius deposed him and killed his sons forcing Rhea to flee and become one of the sacred Vestal Virgins. It was the purpose of Amulius to seize power and thus deprive his brother of a rightful heir so he could reign supreme. However, Rhea gave birth to twins, Romulus and Remus through the supernatural procreation with either Mars (later Roman god of war and blood) or Hercules (Greek association with Heracles). Amulius, who knew about the pregnancy, took the twins once they were born and abandoned them to die. This, by all means should have been the end of the twins through the old practice of infanticide, but they were discovered by a she-wolf (lupa) who then suckled them recognizing them to be half-immortal and from the bloodline of gods. Later, a shepherd and his wife found the twins and raised them until they were men who became shepherds themselves. When the twins discovered the treachery of their past, they killed Amulius, restored Numitor to the throne and decided to found a city of their own.

The two twins ventured until they came to the River Tiber where they decided that this should be the location of their new city. The legend is really divided into two possible tales, with one of them simply resulting in the death of Remus without murder being implied. However, the more dramatic one of course, as told by the Roman historian Livy, who tells of the twins competing for a location and name, chasing each other around, attempting to build the foundational walls and then fighting bitterly until Romulus kills his brother. It is said that Remus had leapt over Romulus’ wall to discredit him and thus was killed in turn with his brother Romulus stating, “So perish everyone that shall hereafter leap over my wall.” Thus, the city is founded and named Roma in what Roman historians dated it at 758 B.C.

One of the best, and most current evidence to suggest that the legend of the She-Wolf and the Twins was part of Rome’s archaic age exists in the famous bronze statue which now stands in the Palazzo dei Conservatori (Capitoline Museum). This has been dated to the 6th century B.C. and originates from the Etruscan people of northern Italy who were later conquered by the Roman kings, later to be absorbed into the Roman Empire with unified Italy as the source of political and judicial power. Historians and archaeologists alike have ample evidence to believe that the story of the Twins was added to the existence of the She-Wolf by around 300 B.C.  which had become the standard story in Rome. “It was officially proclaimed to the world in 269 B.C. when a representation of the she-wolf and twins appeared on one of the first issues of Roman silver coins.” (Cornell, pg. 61)

“The story was accepted in Rome precisely because it was an old and indigenous legend, and because its main features, uncongenial though they may have appeared to later apologists, were too well established in the tradition to be ignored or suppressed.” (Cornell, pg. 61) The people and society had accepted the story of Romulus and Remus to be a truthful account of the founding of their city and an explanation of its existence. It did not matter if the common belief was that the gods had dabbled and had a part in the founding, for it was customary, at the time in pagan society, to believe that the gods interacted with mankind, could procreate with them, and sometimes appeared to them. Like the Greeks who used the myths of the gods and goddesses to explain their existence and purpose in the world, so would the Romans adopt such beliefs to shape and understand their life and later manifest destiny to control the known world.

Whatever elements of truth may or may not lay in the ancient legend, it is sure that the tale of Romulus and Remus would in ways foreshadow the centuries of Roman influence and dictatorship upon the world to come. These similarities from the history of Rome compared with the founding mythology would follow an evolution of: survival, intervention, humbleness, glory, greed, power, self-deification and treachery. Rome would struggle in countless wars, oppress nations of people, take slaves from every country under the sun, fight civil war after civil war, and hunger for wealth, power and glory. Nearly a quarter of the world would live under the rule of the Caesars and the dreams and nightmares that would follow would all point back to the two helpless twins being suckled by the she-wolf.

By Peter J. Fast

Photos taken by author

 

Moloch: An Appetite For Children

Introduction:

Among all the paganism of the ancient world, and the gods and goddesses people worshiped, there may be none more complex in nature, terrible in homage and mysterious in identity then the name, Moloch. When examining and reviewing idolatry of the ancient world, it is like peering through a spyglass at an entangled labyrinth of twisting paths and blocked roads. What we must rely on to clear those roads and gain access to understanding are written records, reliefs and frescoes, archeological remains, and geographical land marks. It is always important to know that paganism in the ancient world was physically seen everywhere and entwined into society, just like name brands or slogans are today in the 21st century. Images of idols could be found on hairpieces, combs, perfume bottles, oil lamps, door frames, jugs and vessels, armour and weaponry, equipment for horses, records of history, clothing, jewellery, etc. The deities were talked about, revered in nature, forged into standing idols and altars, and explained through myths. Often when drastic patterns of nature would effect the land (i.e. crops and drought), the awareness of the gods would increase as would desperation to appease the power. This awareness would take the forefront with the hope to appease the deity to such an extent that he/she would relent from their intended wrath or displeasure. It would be at this center stage, concerning such fear of the unknown, that Moloch would find himself with throngs of worshipers prepared to do anything.

Historians, anthropologists, theologians and archaeologists alike that commit vast amounts of time to the study of mythological beliefs of the ancient world, all wrestle with the memory of Moloch. Little information exists about who or what exactly Moloch actually was and what kind of god he represented and was believed to be. One of the best texts of understanding Moloch is the Hebrew text of the Bible, and a number of other Jewish sources which we will explore further on. Yet, the problem remains that as far as information and cataloged evidence goes, there is not much that has survived to give us a full dimensional and accurate picture of Moloch. So, a level of speculation must enter into the picture, but speculation based on what we know about ancient pagan societies, what their gods/goddesses demanded from their loyal patrons, and how these false deities influenced peoples lives. We will examine the Bible and other sources, and try and formulate an image of Moloch and what we know about him. Thus, for now, I will attempt to place Moloch in his historical setting so that we may be able to grasp an essence of who worshiped this god, why he is considered to be one of the most sadistic of gods, and why some of the most harshest warnings and judgements found in the Bible were directed at him and those who would succumb to his worship.

Origins and Biblical Evidence:

The worship of Moloch (with early roots tied to the Ammonites) was common during the 13th-5th century B.C.. It was practiced in large part by the Canaanites, Phoenicians (which most likely had Judaic roots as a people from the tribe of Asher) and other related cultures in North Africa and the lands of the Levant as far as the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. The name, Moloch, is a Semitic term that derives its root meaning from the word, ‘king.’ As a god, Moloch was part of cult worship which revolved around a kind of propitiatory child sacrifice system where the children were offered by the parents themselves in a honour ceremony to the god. This kind of sacrifice was void of any edged knives or weapons, but instead gave homage to fire which was connected with Moloch. Thus, for what we know about this cult, the children (male and female- 2nd Kings 23:10) were offered to Moloch by being consumed by fire. “And thou shalt not let any of thy seed pass through the fire to Moloch.” Leviticus 18:21-23.

In Biblical text, we see the cult religion of Moloch infiltrate elements of the Kingdom of Judah as we see King Manassah, overseeing and allowing sacrifices to take place in the Hinnom Valley, which is outside Jerusalem. The terms, Gehenna (Greek) and Gihinnom (Hebrew) both describe this valley which the Bible also calls it, Valley of the Son of Hinnom. In 2nd Chronicles 28:3, 33:6; Jeremiah 7:31, 19:2-6 we see the apostate Israelites and followers of various forms of Ba’al and other Canaanite gods, including Moloch, offer their children to the fires. Later, the term Gehenna would be used to demonstrate a picture of hell where the wicked will perish.

We see clearly in the Bible (Leviticus 20:2-5) warnings from God through Moses to His people, Israel, against the practice, veneration and worship of Moloch. “Again you shall say to the children of Israel, or of any of the strangers who dwell in Israel, who gives any of his descendents to Moloch, he shall surely be put to death.” (Lev. 20:2) This will also result in God turning His face from the accused and having the perpetrator cut off from Israel for it is viewed as a defilement against God and directly profaning His holy name. Then the passage is opened up from the individual to the community, should many people take part in the worship of Moloch. “And if the people of the land should in any way hide their eyes from the man, when he gives some of his descendents to Moloch, and they do not kill him, then I will set My face against that man and against his family; and I will cut him off from the people, and all who prostitute themselves with him to commit harlotry with Moloch.” (Lev. 20:4-5). The warning is clear and judgment declared, thus by the time King Manassah reigns over Judah, and allows the worship of Moloch to occur, we see swift judgment following in the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 B.C. by the Babylonian Empire.

Text

In the Hebrew text we see the letters מלך (mlk) used which stand for “melek” or “king”. However, when examined and vocalized in the Masoretic text we hear the name, moloch which has been the traditional pronunciation for the god. Yet, the name in its form regularly appears as (lmlk) when translated letter for letter from the text. The Hebrew equivalent for the “l” means simply, “to”, but it can also take on further meanings such as, “for” or “as/an”. Thus, one could translate the text and read the name as, “to Moloch” or “for Moloch” or “as Moloch”, or “to the Moloch” or “for the Moloch” or “as the Moloch”. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moloch) If we translate this this as, “king” then it gives us either two options, either this is a title and we do not know the true name for Moloch apart from the people of that day who referred to him with honour as, “king,” or that simply was his name, such as Ba’al meaning, “master”.

In reference to the mention of children being sacrificed to Moloch as seen in the Bible, this term “children” is translated as “offspring” or “seed” and demonstrates a literal action displaying the seed, as the continuation of a family, being willingly offered to Moloch into the flames. As it is also seen, offspring could have meant a single family also offering all of their children to Moloch, both male and female. As far as the age of the children, that is not known, although it is a common assumption that they were babies.

Jewish Classical Sources:

In the 12th century A.D. the Jewish rabbinic commentator and revered teacher, Rabbi Shlomo Itzhaki (1040-1105 A.D.) known by the acronym name as Rashi, dealt with the question of Moloch in his examination of Jeremiah 7:31. He stated, ” Tophet is Moloch, which was made of brass; and they heated him from his lower parts; and his hands being stretched out, and made hot, they put the child between his hands, and it was burnt; when it vehemently cried out; but the priests beat a drum, that the father might not hear the voice of his son, and his heart might not be moved.”

Rashi dealt with the fact that the entire ceremony was designed to put people in a trance as they worshiped Moloch and to quench any emotion or reluctance on behalf of the parents offering the children. He gives a description of Moloch and how traditionally he was viewed throughout the Oral History of the Jewish people and the common understanding in rabbinic Judaism. Nevertheless, it is clear that Moloch was wicked and that the institution of such a deity was blasphemous and therefore was worthy to incur the wrath of God upon the people who committed the apostasy. Other forms of rabbinic tradition to support Rashi is attributed to the Yalkout of Rabbi Simeon who said, “that the idol was hollow and was divided into seven compartments, in one of which they put flour, in the second turtle-doves, in the third a ewe, in the fourth a ram, in the fifth a calf, in the sixth an ox, and in the seventh a child, which were all burned together by heating the statue inside.” This is simply impossible to know for sure, but still may have an ounce of truth in it as it was common for these types of animals to be used in sacrifices to gods and goddesses and if we know one thing about the sacrifices in the Hinnom Valley during the days of Manassah, Moloch was only one of many other gods present.

End Notes:

In closing, despite not having all of the details concerning Moloch, it is true that he was a cruel and terrible god. He demanded victims for the obedience of wicked and deceived people to offer, many of whom chose to deliberately turn their backs on the true God to serve a false one. Not only would their own flesh and blood pay for their transgressions and deliberate rebellion, but entire kingdoms and peoples would be vanquished, crushed, exiled, and wrenched from their lands in judgment. The line of kings both in Israel and Judah would be cut off, the Canaanites and Ammonites would vanish from history, and things would never again be the same. Although, in the time of Ezra, Nehemiah and Zerubbabel the Jewish people would once again return and cleanse the land, they would again feel the weight of judgment and oppression through the occupations of the Hellenist Greek world and the Romans. From there, Jerusalem would be destroyed in 70 A.D. and again in 135 A.D. and the people would be scattered again. However, nearly two thousand years later the entire world would behold an amazing event as a nation would be born in a single day (Isaiah 66:8-11) and God would be shown to remember His covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob as He restored Israel on May 14th 1948.

By, Peter J. Fast

A Tale of Two Cities: Firenze and Roma

My trip to Italy and visiting Florence and Rome

Let’s take a different spin from my usual articles to a more relaxed, adventure state of mind…

I have always been fascinated by the history of ancient Rome which can be attributed I think, to two incredible epic movies which I saw as a young boy, Ben-Hur and Spartacus. There the viewer sees fast paced chariot races, gladiators, Roman sea battles, and legions of soldiers deploying for battle. To so many people today the Romans appear as distant, almost mythical individuals who lived so long ago, yet when I was young, I could imagine the roars of the mob in the Coliseum, hear the beat of marching feet, and gaze at their inspiring Temples and architecture. The Romans venerated both the human body and pleasure which is called Hedonism, and yet they were people who shaped the world as we know it, instituted a style of government most Western powers today are built upon, and still capture the imagination of everyone who ever reads about them or climbs the Palatine Hill. Even today legionaries from ancient history patrol the streets, threatening anyone they perceive to be a barbarian (as demonstrated in the picture.)

For a break from the hectic life of work, my wife Deanna and I fulfilled a long desire to see Italy, and we did so by visiting two of the most incredible cities in the country, Firenze and Roma. Besides being the hub of world fashion, and awesome cars, Italy is a beautiful country of rolling green hills, snow capped mountains, vineyards, and winding roads. It is both enchanting and ancient. It speaks of a long, rich history and at the same time reminds us of the dark corridors of barbaric cruelty that remain (i.e. the Coliseum and past civil wars).

Our visit to Firenze instantly immersed us into the world of art, Hellenism, beautiful cathedrals, and famous museums. For the first time in our lives we could cast our eyes upon original paintings and statues that we had only looked at in books. We could study the Baroque architecture, climb the high steps of the Sainta Novella Cathedral, and taste the wonders of Italian piazza, cheese, wine, ice cream and salami. We walked the halls of the Uffizi and Academia Museums, saw the illustrious David of Michelangelo, visited the Piazza dell Republicca (which had been the ancient Roman Forum) and sauntered through streets and courtyards that had existed since Medieval times. As a fashion guru, it was great to see all the designers, and frustrating to drool over the incredible suits, shirts, and shoes and not be able to purchase any of them as they were all so expensive. For example: I saw a beautiful silk scarf to match a suit attire and its price was a wapping 460euro…and then to my agony I saw a man about ten minutes later in a cafe wearing that exact scarf! Argh! Anyway, we spent three days in Firenze exploring much of the city and then caught a train to travel through Tuscany, south to Roma.We planned to spend four days in Roma, which still wasn’t enough. Roma is like one big museum with literally hundreds of sights to take in all at once. The other problem is everywhere you look is a “picture worthy” shot. From the piazza’s with their gorgeous statues (i.e. Trevi Fountain and Novona) to the incredible beauty of Ancient Rome and the Forum was spectacular. We were able to see Trajan’s Pillar, the Arch of Constantine and Titus, tour the Coliseum and Palatine Hill, walk through the Forum, see the Temple of Mithras, visit the ruins of Nero’s palace, the baths of Septimus Severus, or Hadrian’s Palace was like a dream for a historian as myself. It was also wonderful to tour the Capitoline Museum for over four hours, and see the Pantheon which houses the remains of the oldest Temple to Minerva. Also, I could not get enough of the wonderful Italian coffee, did I mention the pizza,:) the pasta, and all the other delights. It was not as romantic as Firenze, but the feel of Roma is one both bustling and modern but still clinging to its ancient heritage. This was clear in the “SPQR” emblazoned on everything from buses to police uniforms to sewer grates. Also the Capitoline She-Wolf was everywhere, which is the ancient myth of the beginning of Rome with the twins Romulous and Remus suckling at the wolf.

Now, I must say a few things about the Capitoline Museum before I conclude. This is a must see if you ever visit Roma and you enjoy history and art. It is housed in three incredible buildings from the 16th century, and is filled with thousands upon thousands of amazing statues. From the remains of the giant statue of Constantine, to the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, to the Dying Gaul, it was a treat and a labyrinth of constant “oos” and “ahhs”. When we left we were speechless and appreciative. We felt as if we had journeyed back in time and witnessed the art and ingenuity of the Roman age.

So…go to Firenze and Roma and see for yourself, and if you are not as much into history, enjoy the food and wine. 🙂

By, Peter J. Fast

A Look At Herodium

A monument both to victory and failure

By WAYNE STILES
12/12/2011 10:48

Sights and Insights: Dr. Wayne Stiles sees the Herodium as a paradoxical monument of a paranoid king.

Resembling a composite between a volcano and a New Mexico mesa, the Herodium dominates the landscape southeast of Bethlehem. Like Mount Tabor in the north, the Herodium has its own inimitable profile. Once you’ve seen it, you recognize it from then on.

Herod the Great named the Herodium for himself as a memorial to a battle he had won there in 40 BC. Prior to the battle, a severe injury to his mother tempted the erratic Herod to take his own life. Instead, he faced the Parthians and Hasmoneans with fury and achieved a great victory.

Making use of an already-existing hillside, Herod constructed a 200-foot double wall around the top of the hill. This wall towered seven stories high, and fill dirt supported the wall all around—enlarging the appearance of the hill and giving it its unique flattop appearance.

Herodium from Nahal Tekoa (Photo: BiblePlaces.com)The view atop the Herodium allows one to see the towers on the Mount of Olives to the northwest, Bethlehem immediately to the northwest, and the Judean Wilderness as it slopes eastward into the Dead Sea.

The ruins from the Herodium boast a massive round tower, as well as three semicircular towers, a dining room, column fragments, a ritual bath, a furnace, a full-sized Roman bath, frescoes, and black and white mosaics—all typical of Herod’s opulent tastes.

Below the hillside rests the Lower Herodium, with formal ornamental gardens, a pavilion, bathhouse, a large palace, a monumental building, and a colonnaded swimming pool.

Perhaps because of Herod’s contemplation of suicide in the area decades earlier, he chose the Herodium as his final Herodium from below (Photo: BiblePlaces.comresting place. Josephus recounts Herod’s excruciating death at the Jericho palace. Dignitaries accompanied the funeralprocession partway, and the pallbearers bore the coffin to Herodium (Antiquities17:199; War 1:673).

For years, skeptics doubted the accuracy of Josephus’ claim that Herod’s tomb lay at the Herodium. Years and years of searching yielded no evidence. Finally in 2007, archaeologist Ehud Netzer discovered Herod’s tomb at the Herodium.

During the Bar-Kohba revolt in AD 132, the Herodium served as the headquarters of the Jewish rebels who transformed the fortress’ cisterns into a system of tunnels in case of Roman attack. The patriots also modified Herod’s dining room into a synagogue similar to those found at Masada and Gamla. In the fifth-century, the site served as a monastery. Christian symbols still are visible in the chapel.

Herodium in distance (Photo: BiblePlaces.com)At this time of year, Herod is best remembered for the Christmas story that never appears on holiday cards. Hearing that the “king of the Jews” was born in Bethlehem, the paranoid Herod sent and slew all the male boys under two years old in Bethlehem—a cryptic fulfillment of Jeremiah 31:15. Of course, Jesus’ family got word of the impending threat and escaped by night to sojourn in Egypt until Herod’s death in 4 BC (Matthew 2:13-18).

Whenever I visit the area of the Herodium, I can’t help but think of the historical irony that Herod tried to kill a certain child—but failed. Instead, Herod himself died and was buried overlooking the very city where prophecy declared the Messiah would be born (Micah 5:2).

Herod constructed the Herodium as a memorial to an earlier victory. But to me, the site stands as an ironic monument of an unsuccessful attempt to eliminate a rival.

What to do there:

Visit the Upper Herodium and see the towers, palace baths, dining room, frescoes, black and white mosaics, and the other ruins the site offers. Find a great panoramic view toward the east, and imagine Herod’s funeral processional making its way toward the Herodium (read Josephus’s account mentioned earlier). Looking out toward Bethlehem, read Matthew’s account of Herod’s slaughter of the innocents (Matthew 2:13-18).

The Herodium served as more than Herod’s summer country club. It was a place of security. Constantly fearing rebellion from his own subjects, the paranoid Herod constructed a series of palaces and fortresses—including the Herodium—to which he could flee in a moment’s notice. His paranoia also urged him to execute anyone he feared was plotting against him—including his wife and several of his own children.

By: Wayne Stiles

Go to Wayne Stiles personal blog for more interesting articles about Israel: http://waynestiles.blogspot.com/

Article taken from The Jerusalem Post (www.jpost.com)

Peter’s comments:

King Herod was a man of many qualities. He was visionary, a builder, an architect and tried again and again to appeal to the people so they would love him. He built up Jerusalem, Jericho and Tiberius, developed Casaerea, Masada and had many other works and projects, yet still the Jewish people as a whole despised him. Why is this? For one they saw Herod as a Roman sympathizer, a pawn and a tyrant. He was placed into power because of his connections with Emperor Augustus, and was a man whose immoral behavior knew no bounds. He was also a man responsible for the murder of his own family members and others (such as the order to kill all the boys in Bethlehem two years of age and under), the desecration and election of the priesthood, and a man who was Hellenistic in nature, yet still tried to appease those who sought to be set apart. Herod was both ruthless and a man of opportunity. He was paranoid of usurpers and desired not to relinquish control of his power. He transformed cities into thriving metropolitan’s yet died a client king of Rome, hated by his people. The site of Herodium attests to Herod’s greatness and vision, yet shows his pompous personality and his mad and obsessed desire to be loved. Herodium is an incredible site of history, and probably still contains mysteries of the man, yet to be discovered.

By: Peter J. Fast

Pictures used with permission and courtesy of BiblePlaces.com

The Four Stooges: The Year of the Four Emperors of Rome

From Nero to Vespasian

68 C.E. – 69 C.E.

The purpose of this article is not to be exhaustive in any way, but to embark on one of the wildest years throughout the ages of Roman history. It was a year that dragged the empire into civil war, assassination and betrayal which nearly destroyed the massive, widespread empire. Although typically historians do not count Emperor Nero as part of the four, since he was already emperor at the time, we shall begin this journey by starting with the tyrant, both loved and hated by the people of Rome.

Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (54 C.E. – 68 C.E.)

Nero was known in the annals of history as a lot of things. The fifth emperor of the Roman Empire, tyrant, obsessed musician and poet, the man who crushed the Boudicca Revolt in Britain, started the fire of Rome (64C.E.) and blamed it on the Christians, and a man who did not possess the most favorable view of his mother as he had her executed, and most likely poisoned his stepbrother, Britannicus. Nero was a man driven by lust, grandeur, madness, paranoia, and in the end was betrayed by the very men dedicated to protect him, the Praetorian Guard of Rome, as documented by the Roman historian, Suetonius. Nero had extreme bouts of sadistic, morbid wanes, a great example being that he used captured Christians, as human torches by covering them in pitch and lighting them on fire to illuminate his gardens during feasts and parties.

Nero was of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and so was fifth in line, after Emperor Claudius, to rule the empire of Rome. He loved to travel and perform the arts, often times where he would force people to listen to his poetic rants, sometimes under pain of death if they were to fall asleep (which nearly happened to Vespasian). Nero also was a man of war. He conducted campaigns against Parthia from 55 C.E. until a peace deal was brokered in the year 63 C.E. Nero also crushed the Boudicca rebellion of Britain (60 C.E. – 61 C.E.), the Pisonian Conspiracy of 65 C.E., and was ruler during the majority of the First Jewish Revolt of 66 C.E. – 73 C.E. In the Jewish Revolt, we see Nero’s sense of paranoia come to fruit, (as if executing his mother, and poisoning his stepbrother was not enough evidence). At the failed attempt of Syrian Governor Cestius Gallus to crush the Jewish revolt and take Jerusalem, Nero elected a nobody in the political realm to lead the newly raised Judean Army, and that was Titus Flavius Vespasianus (known as Vespasian). Vespasian, a veteran and master in the art of warfare, lacked incredibly, at the time of his elected command in 67 C.E., in the political arena. Thus, for Nero, he saw Vespasian as a harmless puppet to conduct the affair in the east and crush the Jewish uprising. However, the vice grips would suddenly close on poor Nero’s life as betrayal and treason would occur in his own ranks.

In March of 68 C.E., Gaius Julius Vindex, who was the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, rebelled against the taxation and policies that Nero had set up. Needless to say Nero was not pleased. Being the type of man who may jump at the sound of a door closing, Nero sought out to crush the rebellion. Thus, Nero made his first attempt to crush the rebellion in his own camp, and he dispatched Lucius Verginius Rufus, who was the governor of Germania Superior. Vindex tried to rally his own forces and build them up to face off against Nero’s general, Rufus, however, Vindex was defeated at the Battle of Vesontio in May of 68 C.E. and seeing defeat, Vindex committed suicide. Following in the wake of this victory, Rufus’ own troops saw him as a potential emperor and decided to declare him as Imperator. Rufus declined but the die had been cast as the thought of Nero’s demise had no doubt been planted into the minds of other powerful men in the empire. With the discontent of the legions in Germany, and the rumblings in Spain, one such man quickly rose to the seat of treason which would not bode well for Nero, and that was the Governor of Spain, Servius Sulpicius Galba. Although Nero had Galba declared a public enemy, his support was unstoppable as he was proclaimed by his own troops as representative of the Senate and the people of Rome, SPQR. Once the prefect of the Praetorian Guard, Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus had abandoned Nero and declared allegiance to Galba, it was now clear that Nero was in grave danger, so the young emperor fled Rome, perhaps intending to rally legions to his side to face Galba in battle.

But, unfortunately Nero did not get far. Nero had sent a general to northern Italy hoping to raise an army and watch Galba’s coalition collapse, but this was not to be. Thus, paranoid that he had lost control, Nero made plans to flee to Egypt. The Praetorian Guard used this as an excuse to desert him, since in their minds, he had deserted Rome. So, like he had declared Galba a public enemy, the Praetorian Guard declared Nero a public enemy. In a coup d’etat they sent soldiers to arrest Nero. However, they would not get the satisfaction. As the Praetorian located and approached the deposed emperor on the outskirts of Rome, Nero took his own life following an argument with his servant to kill him. This would all be done in a grisly manner as Nero would end up ramming his own knife through his neck, thus bringing his tyrannical reign to a swift end.

Servius Sulpicius Galba Augustus (8th of June 68 C.E. – 15th of January 69 C.E.)


After throwing many drunken parties and minting his face upon coins decorated with quotes such as, “Liberty of the Roman People”, Galba suddenly became the sixth emperor of Rome. However, like the following list of people to come after him, his rule was not long at all. His mistake started at the beginning of his reign, for he did not react quick enough to flex his Roman muscle around the empire, as it was important him, once stealing the empire through anarchy and treason, to prove to everyone else that he still had it. However, what came next was undoubtedly a bad move. The first thing Galba did was on January 10th 69 C.E., he presented to the Senate a man named, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinanus. Lucius had no political achievements, an obscure family, and had just spent a couple of years in exile. Regardless, Galba adopted Lucius as heir to the throne.  Having done this, Galba naturally made political enemies out of the people who had just thrust him into power. So, Galba’s right hand man, Otho, who had been by Galba’s side since Spain, acted quickly. Out of shock and jealousy of not being made the heir, Otho rallied the disgruntled Praetorian Guard, whom Galba had failed to pay, and made a mad dash for the throne of the empire. Otho bribed all the praetorian commanders to help him take down Galba. Otho would deliver!

On January 15th 69 C.E. Otho went with Galba to sacrifice at the Temple of Apollo, only to slip away from the imperial entourage and be taken by 23 soldiers to the Praetorian Camp where he was welcomed and greeted warmly. Following this, Otho rallied the guard and killed Galba as he went through the Forum. Suetonius describes this well as they slaughtered Galba and Piso and any associates he had that were loyal to him, but miraculously there was no great slaughter. So was the end of Galba, lets continue. (Score for the Emperors 0/1)

Marcus Salvius Otho Caesar Augustus (15th of January 69 C.E. – 16th of April 69 C.E.)

Right from the beginning of his reign, Otho was a smooth-talking, double tongued man who sought, in an underhand way, to gain popularity and explain his succession to the throne as Romes seventh emperor. Obviously everyone knew he had deposed Galba from his seat of power by having the man killed, but Otho made it his mandate to try to relate with the people, appealing to a strange logic by stating that he had murdered Galba in order to avenge Nero. A little odd since Otho had been Galba’s right-hand man from the beginning. However, in Rome a man’s career was of the utmost importance, and true power came at the helm of as many legions as one could muster. So looking closer, before his rise to power, Otho had been a man confined by Nero to Lusitania as governor from 58 C.E., thus he had no real military reputation, had never been a consul, and had no great following among other provincial commanders and armies.

Otho came from Germania of all places, where the illustrious Aulus Germanicus Vitellius Augustus (a generation of Otho’s senior and consul of more than 20 years previously) fixed his eye on Otho’s throne, and preferred himself, instead of Otho, to sit on it. Vitellius was a man of war and the commander of the legions stationed on the Rhine and allowed his troops, rather in a charmed way, to convince him that he should be emperor. Like any legion, they wanted to profit from Vitellius smashing Otho in battle and removing him from the throne. Otho was young, he was only 36 which was considered by Romans to be an age that consisted of a natural lack of experience in war and politics, especially aligned next to a war-dog like Vitellius. It was simple, Vitellius and his troops refused to declare loyalty to Otho and then crossed the Alps with incredible speed in order to march on Rome. This was done to stop Otho from being reinforced by troops from other provinces, most particularly in the Balkans. So, without haste Otho was smashed at the Battle of Cremona in the Po Valley on April 14th 69 C.E. and committed suicide two days later. (Score of the Emperors 0/2)

Aulus Germanicus Vitellius Augustus (16th of April 69 C.E. – 22nd of December 69 C.E.)

After the war-dog, Vitellius had refused to declare loyalty to Otho, and met him near Cremona, he summarily trounced his enemy in a single day, and threw a party two days later as Romes eighth emperor. Once the road had been opened and Rome stood before Vitellius, naturally the Senate declared loyalty to Vitellius and deemed him emperor, honouring him with the title, Augustus, which he graciously accepted.  However, this was a recipe for disaster, as the man at the time who was engaged in an attempt to crush the Jewish Revolt, was a political enemy of Vitellius and had a legions of soldiers at his disposal. His name was Vespasian. It was obvious what would happen next and on the 5th day of the Ides of July, Vespasian was given the title of, Imperator, by his troops and numerous governors, generals, and legions hailed their allegiance to the man whom Nero had believed to be of no political rivalry or threat…which was why he chose Vespasian in the first place to lead the war in Judea. Lines were drawn, names were hurled at one another, and plans were made as Vitellius observed a host of legions, loyal to Vespasian, advance on Rome. Vitellius reacted swiftly, assembling a massive army to meet his enemies, and ironically, at the second Battle of Cremona on 24th of October 69 C.E. the forces loyal to Vespasian, killed 50,000 of Vitellius’ men. But, this was not the end for Vitellius. The scared and petrified emperor, fled back to Rome and barricaded himself in the city. It was not until the 21st of December that a general named, Primus forced his way into the city, sacked it. In the sacking, Primus captured Vitellius, had a rope placed around his neck, and then proceeded to drag him, half-naked to the Forum, all along the Sacred Way. Then at the Stairs of Wailing in the Forum, Vitellius, with a sword at his throat, was murdered. (Score for the Emperors 0/3)

Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (1st of July 69 C.E. – 23rd of June 79 C.E.)

Vespasian’s tale is the easiest to tell. He had a lot of strong support, paid off the right people, pretty much kept his word, was a great liar, was known as a charmer, had a hilarious sense of humour, and had the biggest army. After the second Battle of Cremona, Vespasian renewed the war against the rebellious Jews from the comfort of Alexandria in Egypt, and sent his son Titus (who had the same name) to mop up the rest of the mess and destroy Jerusalem along with the three remaining Jewish strongholds, the most popular being Masada by the Dead Sea. Prior to Jerusalem’s fall, Vespasian departed for Rome. In Rome he eventually got word that his son was successful in destroying Jerusalem in the summer of 70 C.E., with the Fretensis 10 Legion eventually conquering Masada by 73 C.E. in a hollow victory. Vespasian had proven to the empire that he could deliver, and for many Romans, he had restored the glory of Rome which had been devastated by the last 12 months. Vespasian, therefore, was able to lived out his days in pomp and splendour with his two sons to follow in the rule of succession. The oldest son, Titus the conqueror of Jerusalem and womanizer, ruled until 81 C.E. and then died mysteriously, most historians believing that his younger brother, Domitian, poisoned him. Once Titus had died, Domitian, the man who really did not like Christians, seized the throne…but that is another story. (Score for the Emperors 1/4)

By, Peter J Fast